« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
lovely (amablt). Virtue is lively. Books are useful. Time is more precious than gold. Ignorance is (the) mother of error. Prudence is more precious than silver. Water is as good as wine. Charity is patient. Life , is not a dream. Wisdom is more precious than all riches. Beneficence makes us amiable. Wisdom3 is3 better1 than beauty. Men are mortal. Man fears death. Man fears not life. Gold is precious. She has prudence. Peter has money. Lucy found no books. John has gold. Butter is very dear. Milk is white. Beer is good. This year flour is very dear. Wine is very dear this year. Death is terrible. Gratitude is the soul of religion. Prudence and judgment are necessary to every man. Wines will-be good this year. Peter prefers vice to virtue. The shoemaker prefers beer to wine. Forks are useful. This year flour is not dear. Gold is more precious than silver. History is (the) instructress of life. John prefers riches to wisdom. This gentleman prefers truth to error. The peace of society depends on (<fc) justice. Prudence is better than money.
OF THE VERB.
Verbs are classed, as in English, into active, passive, and neuter; active-transitive, active-intransitive, reflective, regular, irregular, impersonal, and defective. They are also varied by Person and number, mood and tense.
An active verb expresses an action affirmed of the agent or nominative; as,
Cldudio escribe, Claudius writes.
When the action is affirmed of the agent as being transmitted to a direct object, the verb is called active-transitive;
A passive verb affirms that an action has been received or suffered by the agent; as,
Ellos fucron postrados, they were overthrown.
A neuter verb affirms merely the condition or state of existence of its agent, without any reference to a direct object; as,
El ltombre exists, the man exists.
Verbs have three persons and two numbers, as in English; that is, they vary their endings to agree with the person and number of their nominative; as,
1st Pers. To hablo, I speak.
2nd Pers. Tit hablas, thou
speakesc. 3rd Pers. El habla, he speaks.
1st Pers. Nosotros hablamos,
3rd Pers. Ellos hablan, they
In Spanish it is not necessary to use the personal pronouns of the nominative case with the verb (unless for the sake of emphasis or perspicuity), as the ending of the verb indicates the person of its nominative. Thus, hablo means l-speak; hablas, thou-speakest; habla, he-speaks or she-speaks; hablamos, we-speak, etc.
Mood is the form which the verb takes to show in what manner the action or existence is represented. In Spanish there are four moods; the infinitive, the indicative, the imperative, and th6 subjunctive.
The infinitive mood expresses action or being in an indefinite manner, without reference to person or time; as,
Hablar, to speak. | Comer, to eat.
The indicative mood represents the affirmation in a positive manner; as,
Hablamos, wc-speak. j Comcre, I-shall-cat.
The imperative mood expresses an order, entreaty, or command; as,
Coman, let-them-cat, or, may-they-eat.
The subjunctive mood represents the affirmation in a conditional manner; as,
Aunque hablen, though they-may-speak.
Tense is the form which the verb takes to show the time of the action, being, or passion which is affirmed. There are properly three tenses, the past, the present, and the future. These are subdivided into eight tenses, one for the present, five for the past, and two for the future: the present; imperfect, perfect-definite, perfect-indefinite, the first-pluperfect, second-pluperfect; the first-future, and future-perfect or second-future. *
The present tense represents whatever is affirmed as taking place at the present time; as,
The imperfect tense represents as relatively present something which is affirmed as past, though, for all we know to the contrary, not yet completed; as,
JIablaban cuando los via, they were-speaking when he-saw them.
The perfect-definite tenBe represents what is affirmed as being completely past and finished; as,
Les hablo oyer, he-spoke to them yesterday.
The perfect-indefinite tense represents what is affirmed as having taken place during a time not entirely elapsed; as, Les he hablado hoy, I-have spoken to them to-day.
The first-pluperfect tense expresses what is past and was finished before another action, also past, completed; that is, an event which occurred prior to some other past event; as,
Habia hablado cuando llego, I-had spoken when he-arrived.
The ucond-pluperfeet expresses that what is affirmed had taken place immediately before a time which is past; and is always employed after advebs of time; as,
Cuando les huho hablado, se mareharon, when he-had spoken to-them, they went away.
The first-future tense refers to some action or event which is yet to take place; as,
Hablaru esla noche, he-will-speak to-night.
The second-future or future-perfect tense refers to some future action or event that will have taken place at or before some particular future time; as,
Sabre acabado d las echo, I-shall-have finished at
Participles And Gerunds.
Verbs in Spanish have two participles, the present and the past. There are, however, but few present participles in use, and these few are, almost without exception, employed only as adjectives or nouns; as, semcjante, similar; obedienie, obedient; viajante, traveller. The ending of the present participle of verbs that have their infinitive in ar, is ante; of those that have their infinitive in er or if, it is iente.
The past participle denotes action or being perfected or
finished, and, when derived from a regular verb, is generally formed by changing the final letters of the infinitive or into ado, and er or ir into ido; as,
Bablado, spoken. | Comido, eaten.
The gerund in Spanish is equivalent to the present participle in English; and is formed by changing the final letters of the infinitive in or into ando, and er or tr into iendo; as,
Hablando, speaking. | Comienuo, eating.
In Spanish the infinitive mood of all verba ends in or, er, or ir, and these terminations serve to distinguish the three conjugations; the first conjugation comprehending all verbs ending in ar; the second, those ending in er / and the third, those ending in ir.
Regular verbs are those which are conjugated through all the moods and tenses without deviating in their orthography from the corresponding orthography of the model verbs.
Irregular verbs are those which do not conform in every respect to the regular standard or model verbs.
Auxiliary or helping verbs are those by the aid of which others are conjugated in the compound tenses and in the passive voice. The auxiliary verbs are hater, to have; eer, to be; estar, to be. Those tenses of the active voice in which an auxiliary verb is used, are called compound tenses.
Remark—The learner must keep in mind the rules for accenting the verb in all its varieties of termination; and he will thus know that all persons of the verbs (of whatever mood or tense) which have no accent over any syllable are to be accented on the syllable next to the last.* In some of the conjugations, the accent will be placed over all the forms, in order to aid the student in pronouncing them.
LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.
Look abroad, over the face of this vast and almost illimitable continent, and behold multitudes which no man can number, impatient of the slow process of education, wrestling with the powers of nature and the obstructions of accident, and like the patriarch, refusing to let go their hold, till the day break, and they receive the promised blessing, and the recompense of the struggle.
You will perceive, too, in the remotest corners where civilisation has planted her standard, that there the Press, the mightiest engine ever yet invented by the genius of man, is producing a moral revolution, on a scale of grandeur and magnificence unknown to all former generations. By it information of every transaction of government, and of all important occurrences in the four quarters of the world, is transmitted with a degree of speed and regularity, that the most sagacious could not have foreseen, nor the most enthusiastic have dared to hope for, fifty years ago. By the Press, every cottage is supplied with its newspaper, and elementary looks in the most useful sciences; and every cradle is supplied with tracts and toy-books, to teach the infant to lisp lessons of wisdom and piety, long before his mind has power to conceive, or firmness to retain, their meaning.
The power of this engine, in the moral and intellectual ■universe, is inconceivable. There is no ordinary operation of the physical elements to which its mighty influence can be compared. We can find only in the visions of the apocalyptic saint a parallel to its tremendous action. Guided by truth and reason, like the sound of the seventh trumpet, it opens the temple of God in heaven, and shows to the eye of the faithful and regenerated spirit, within the veil of that temple, in the presence-chamber of the Almighty, the ark of his testament. Controlled by falsehood and fraud, its force like the
opening of the sixth seal of the mystic volume, producesearthquakes, turns the sun to sackcloth, and the moon to blood, moves every mountain and island out of their places, and causes even the heaven we hope for, to depart as a scroll when it is rolled together.—Joseph T. Buckingham
Xxcept the-eecond person plural of the Imperative mood.
GREECE IN 1820.
Land of the brave! where lie inuraed
Land of the Muse! within thy bowers
Land of dead heroes! living slaves!
No! coward souls I the light which shone
Where Bleeps the spirit, that of old
Yet, Ida, yet upon thy hill,
Greece! yet awake thee from thy trance;
In vain, in vain the hero calls;
Lost land! where Genius made his reign,
Thy sun hath set, the evening storm
Hath passed in giant fury by,
To blast the beauty of thy form.
And spread its pall upon the sky;
Gone is thy glory's diadem.
And freedom never more shall cease
To pour her mornful requiem
O'er blighted, lost, degraded Greece \—J. G. Brooks.
TRYING TO PLEASE.
We know that it is difficult to draw the line between good social dispositions and actions generally, and a sickly regard to false exactions; and to avoid useless discriminations, we shall venture to say, that we dislike much of the current language on the subject of pleasing. We dislike the phrase, "trying to please." It is deceptive, and the practice itself leads to effeminacy or fraud. It puts men in wrong positions towards each other.
To shun giving needless offence is one thing, and most important. This passive good-will or negative benevolence is not sustained without effort; and, as it is little noticed by those whom it spares, it is likely to be disinterested, and can scarcely do harm to either party.
Then, again, to give innocent pleasure to others by active efforts and personal sacrifices in their behalf, is safe for all concerned. And to gratify our friends by our moral excellence and high reputation, is a natural reward, though we should not propose it as the object of virtuous action. And undoubtedly our customary civilities and attentions are in part designed to give pleasure.
But Chesterfield's "passionate desire of pleasing everybody," this endeavouring so to adapt ourselves to the dispositions of others, that admiration and gratitude shall beam upon us whenever we appear, and our very persons become idols, is not the prompting or expression of benevolence; and it is foreign to the true spirit and purpose of civility. There is selfishness on both sides, and mutual mischief. Men have no right to such a show of devotion, and we have no right to offer it.
We are not placed here, solely or chiefly to please or to be pleased, even in the best sense that we can give to these terms; but to be good and to do good. And, oo far as manners promote these objects, let them be cultivated with enthusiasm as virtues; and, so far as they then give pleasure, they yield a natural fruit.—Edward T. Charming.
THE WILD BOY.
He sat upon the wave-washed shore
With madness in his eye;
Pass'5 unregarded by;
He heeded not their strife,—
And stopped the streams of life.
They spoke him kindly,—but he gazed,
And offered no reply ;—
And threw the morsel by.
Of darkness hath been cast;
With dangers that were past.
The city of his home and heart,
So grand,—so gaily bright,
Had vanished from his sight.
Had rent it from its hold,— And nothing but a putrid lake,
Its tale of terror told.
His kindred there, a numerous band,
Had watched his youthful bloom,— In the broad ruin of the land.
All—all had met their doom! But the last night, a mother's voice
Breathed over him in prayer,— She perished,—he was left no choice
But mute and blank despair.
He sat alone, of all the crowd
That lately thronged around,— The ocean winds were piping loud,
He did not heed their sound; They asked him of that city's fate,
But reason's reign was o'er,— He pointed to her ruined state,
Then fled,—and spoke no more.
Charles West Thomson.
The plumage of the mocking-bird, though none of the home liest, has nothing gaudy or brilliant in it; and, had he nothing else to recommend him, would scarcely entitle him to notice; but his figure is well proportioned, and even handsome. The ease, elegance and rapidity of his movements, the animation of his eye, and the intelligence he displays in listening, and laying up lessons from almost every species of the feathered creation within his hearing, are really surprising, and mark the peculiarity of his genius.
To these qualities we may add that of a voice full, strong and musical, and capable of almost every modulation, from the clear, mellow tones of the wood-thrush, to the savage screams of the bald eagle. In measure and accent, he faithfully follows his originals. In force and sweetness of expression he greatly improves upon them. In his native groves, mounted upon the top of a tall bush, or half-grown tree, in the dawn of a dewy morning, while the woods are already vocal with a multitude of warblers, his admirable song rises pre-eminent over every competitor.
The ear can listen to his music alone, to which that of all the others seems a mere accompaniment. Neither is this strain altogether imitative. His own native notes, which are easily distinguishable by such as are acquainted with those of our various song birds, are bold and full, and varied seemingly beyond all limits. They consists of short expressions of two, three, or, at the most, five or six syllables, generally interspersed with imita* tions, and all of them uttered with great emphasis and rapidity, and continued with undiminished ardour for half an hour, or an hour, at a time; his expanded wings and tail, glistening with white, and the bouyant gaiety of his action, arresting the eye, as his song most irresistibly does the ear. He sweeps round with enthusiastic ecstasy. He mounts and descends, as his song swells, or dies away; and, as my friend Mr. Bartram, has beautifully expressed it, "he bounds aloft with the celerity of an arrow, as if to recover or recall his very soul, which expired in the last elevated strain."
While thus exerting himself, a bystander, destitute of light, would suppose that the whole feathered tribe had assembled together on a trial of skill, each striving to produce his utmost effect:—so perfect are his imitations. He many times deceives the sportsman, and sends him in search of birds that perhaps are not within miles of him, but whose notes he exactly imitates. Even birds themselves are frequently imposed on by this admirable mimic, and are decoyed by the fancied calls of their mates; or dive with precipitation into the depths of thickets, at the scream of what they suppose to be the sparrowhawk.—Alexander Wilson.
FRENCH READING S.—No. XXX.
Captif au rivage du Maure,1
Depuis trois ans je vous conjure
L'une de vous peut-être est néec
Ma sœur est-elle.mariée?"
Avez-vous vu de nos garçons . La foule aux noces conviée,
La célébrer dans leurs chansons?
Et ces compagnons du jeune âge
Qui m'ont suivi dans les combats,
Ont-ils revu* tous le village ?u
Sur leur corps l'étranger, peut-être,
1. Où se trouvait captif?
2. Que disait-il aux hirondelles?
3. Où l'espérance les suivaitelle?
4. Quelle question le prisonnier leur faisait-il?
5. Dequoilesconjurait-il depuis trois ans?
6. Où était située la chaumine du guerrier?
7. Que demanda-t-il aux oiseaux?
8.Où était peut-être née une
10. Que croit entendre à toute heure la pauvre mère mourante?
11. Que fait la tendre mère?
12. Quelle question nuit ce
13. Que demande le captif à l'égard de sa sœur?
14. A l'égard des compagnons de son enfance?
15. Quelle autre question le prisonnier fait-il?
16. Que fait peut-être l'étranger »
17. Qu'y a-t-il partout pour le prisonnier?
18. Que demande-t-il enfin aux
LE VIEUX ROI ET LA JEUNE FILLE.
J'e'tais depuis deux mois à Londres ;l les deux mois les plus brumeux de la brumeuse Angleterre. Enfin, vers la mi-février, à travers un voile de nuées grisâtres, j'aperçus somme une pâle copie de notre soleil de France, le soleil de la Grande-Bretagne.3 J'avais besoin, pourrespirer à l'aise, de sortir de l'atmosphère pesante3 qui oppressait ma poitrine, et je résolus" d'aller guérir un méchant rhume à Richmond,* qne j'avais si souvent entendu citer comme un des plus beaux heux des environs de Londres.5 Quittant avec plaisir mon hôtel noir et enfumé, je montai dans une légère et bonne diligence et arrivai en quelques heures8 à la destination que je m'étais fixée.*
La vue qui s'offre au voyageur du haut de la terrasse de Richmond est des plus rmntes et des plus gracieuses.7 Devant ses yeux se déroule une forêt immense et épaisse,8 qui semble dominer tout le pays, et au milieu de laquelle toutes les habitations ont l'air d'êtrec enfoncées» dans des épais et moelleux ombrages. De distance en distance s'étendent de belles pelouses,10 qui ressemblent à ces clairières qui entrecoupent les bois," où les cerfs, les biches et les faons"1 viennent bondir et jouer sous les rayons du soeil.1*
C'est de la colline de Richmond que l'on voit le cours de la Tamise ;13 ce n'est point encore l'orgueilleuse reine des fleuves; ici elle est simple et modeste comme la villageoise qui n'a point encore vu la ville des rois.14 Toute poésie à part, la Tamise est peu de chose à Richmond on ne dirait pas en la voyant si humble, que quelques milles plus loin, elle va devenir si puissante par ses ondes1" et par ses richesses.
Après avoir déjeûné à l'hôtel de l'E'toih, j'allai visiter le maison du célèbre Pope.'7 Les princes d'Orléans l'habitaient alors.14 Cette jolie villa devait être selon le cœur du poète anglais; elle est merveilleusement et tranquillement assise sur la pente très douce d'un coteau13 qui forme pelouse devant le château et que baignent les ondes do la Tamise. Un énorme bouquet de chênes séculaires est comme la toile* de fond,20 sur laquelle se dessine en clair l'élége.nto habitation.
Je consacrai ma soirée à explorer le parc de Kew et le jardin botanique.31 Cette très modeste résidence appartient la couronne ;î2 c'était la retraite favorite de la reino Charlotte,13 femme de Georges III. Le petit pavillon qu'habitait le couple royal, semblerait trop bourgeois à un enrichi de nos jours.3'
13. Que voit-on aussi de la colline de Richmond?
14. A quoi l'auteur comparc-t-il la Tamise ici?
15. Qu'est-ce que la Tamise à Richmond?
16. Que ne dirait-on pas?
17. Que fit l'auteur après le déjeuner?
18. Qui habitait alors cette
1. Où était l'auteur?
2. Qu'aperçut-il vers la mi-février?
3. De quoi avait-il besoin pour respirer?
4. Que résolut-il?
5. Comment lui avait-on cité Richmond?
6. Fut-Ulongtemps en chemin?
7. Quelle vue s'offre au voyageur du haut de la terrasse de Richmond?
8. Que voit-il se dérouler devant ses yeux?
9. Quelle apparence ont les habitations?
10. Que voit-on de distance en distance?
11. A quoi ressemblent ces pelouses?
12. Qu'y font les cerfs, les biches et les faons?
19. Comment cette villa est-elle située?
20. Que voit-on dans lo fond?
21. Que fit l'auteur dans la soirée?
22. A qui appartient cette habition?
23. Qu'était cette résidence?
24. Que semblerait aujourd'hui le pavillon habité par le couple royal?
NOTE3 Aîtd References.—a. from résoudre; L. part ii., p. 104.—h. L. S. 97, E. 6.—<r. L. S. 97, R. 2.—d.faon is pronounced as if it were written fan.—e. toile de fond, ground.
La reine Charlotte s'en arrangeait" à merveille; elle y était plus heureuse qu'à Windsor." Cette reine d'un esprit pen agréable, mais Bolide, possédait de grandes qualités ;3 elle était le modèle des épouses de la Grande-Bretagne. Les Anglais de mon âge se souviennent'1 encore des soins! assidus et pleins d'égards,3 qu'elle n'a cessé1 de rendre I à son malheureux époux pendant sa longue et cruelle maladie.
A Kew, Charlotte et Georges III. vivaient très retirés; souvent, on les voyait assis tous les deux sous les nobles ombrages des cèdres j4 là, ils oubliaient les soucis du trône, les ennuis de la cour, et s'occupaient avec les délices de la botanique qu'il aimaient passionnément.6
Un jour, une jolie enfant, avec de beaux cheveux noirs bouclés,' passa près du banc où ils se reposaient de leur promenade. La reine appela la petite fille,' qu'elle trouva charmante. C'étais l'enfant d'un émigré français.' La petite fille avait rempli son tablier, de fleurs champêtres,1 qu'elle venait1 do cueillir sur les pelouses. La reine lui parla d'abord en anglais." L'enfant ne comprenant point cette langue, sa famille ne faisait que d'arriver en Angleterre,12 la reine lui dit en français:
—Vous avez là de bien jolis bouquets; pour qui sontils?»
—Pour maman, qui aime bien les fleurs ;u mais qui ne peut plus venir voir les belles plantes qu'il y a ici ... parcequ'elle est malade.
Y a-t-il longtemps' qu'elle souffre ?ls
Oh! oui, bien longtemps! bien longtemps !16.... depuis qu'elle a appris la mort de papa, que les méchants ont tué.
—Les révolutionnaires, qui ont tué le roi.18 —Pauvre enfant !ls dit le roi Georges en passant sa main dans la belle chevelure de jais de la petite Français que' Dieu te conserve ta mère!
—Je le demande au bon Dieu tous les jours'1 et cependant elle ne guérit pas Je voulais rester auprès d élie
aujourd'hui; mais elle a ordonné à ma bonne de m'amener ici.
Alors Charlotte se leva et pria l'enfant de la conduire à sa bonne." La vieille gouvernante était loin de croire que c'était une reine, qui venait ainsi vers elle,33 si simplement mise* et tenant la petite par la main.
—D'où venez-vous, Mademoiselle Louise?34 demanda-t-elle d'un ton sévère ; je vous avais recommandé11 de ne pas vous éloigner.
-^-Ne la grondez pas,25 dit la reine, elle était, la pauvre petite, à me parler de sa mère, et je viens vous demander, Madame, de me conduire chez elle.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
P. H. Beauchahp: We have for some time contemplated the publication of the lessons you desire, bnt when we shall be able to accomplish it we connot positively say.
DrviNio cannot do better than commence with Dr. Jenkyn'a lessons in Theoloey In the "Biblical Educator."
W, Fairlby: We regret to say oar correspondent's verses appear to us scarcely worthy of insertion in our pages, which are already overcrowded with a multiplicity of subjects.
John M'mbath: It will be Impossible for as to give any more lessons in the subjects you mention.
Popil: We are sorry we cannot give you any farther assistance than may be cathered from what has already appeared in our pages. The accentuation of Latin is a very simple affair. Words of two syllables are always accented on the first. Words of more than two syllables receive the accent on tho last but one If that is long, and on the last but two In all other cases.
William: The quantity of electricity is greater in proportion to the sixe of the condensing plate and the quantity of friction.
Xapiri seems to have knowledge enough for the situation he desires, bat has he sufficient influence to procure it? That is the great point. He will find our Lessons in Stenography answer every purpose.
Elisabeth may obtain a key to the French exercises from any bookseller. We have not yet published a key to the Italian exercises.
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