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fall into something. If the place is mentioned, it appears in the dntive with tv, though analogy would lead you to expect the accusative with tic. Consequently the Greeks said riQtvai, •KaranOivai tv viji, tv rapip; TtBtvai tv \tpaiv; rtBtvat tv ■ornXy, to set on a pillar; TiBtvat tv roif ftcatoic, to place among (or in the class of) the just; tv rote £i\oero(Joic nOtvai, to reckon among philosophers; so, fiaXuv tvi novrip. to cast into the sea; xaOiZtiv tv ilpa, to place on a seat; fir/vat tv ttaptp, to bind in chains. The preposition twt, with the genitive or the dative, is sometimes used with these verbs; e.g. naBiZtiv twi Opovov, Karari9tvat twt rijt yi}c, carairiirrtiv tin yijf; and in the poets, twt yy wiwrtiv, carairiirrtiv, TiBtvat twi yowafftv, twt fptaiv.
In English we often employ in where into would analogically seem required. Thus we say, "to fall in love ;" "he took the book in his hand." By attention to the renderings of the prepositions in the examples just given, you will learn how impossible it is, consistently with the preservation of the English idiom, to adhere to one English representative, or, in other words, to limit yourself to one English meaning, of a -Greek preposition. Ev denotes in, this is its fundamental signification; but above it is of necessity rendered on, among, and into; and. as found in nSivai tv vni, would have to be translated on board of. You must ever bear in mind, that at the best one language is only an imperfect picture of another. You must also be told that you receive instructions in English to enable you not to turn Greek into English so much as to read English in Greek, or rather to read Greek in Greek. Then only will you thoroughly understand a language when you read its literature without any medium whatever.
To resume: With verbs which denote going to and arriving at a place, you will often find Ijti with the genitive, in the poets with the dative, whereby it is intimated that in the writer's mind a tarrying at was consequent on the reaching of a place. VeTy common, therefore, are forms such as itvai, a-jritvai, Koui'CiaQai, avaxwptlv, airoY/iiptTv, irXtiv, airoicXttv, Qtvyttv tir' Oikov, iir A&ijvwv, tin SaXafxivoc;and especially tirt, with the geni'ive used of names of cities and islands, as Jj twt Bo/3uXilvoc i>6"oc. etc.; so, poetically, iBvvttv iirirovc tiri nvt, opfiaoOai tir' avepaatv, tir' aXAijXoioiv uvai, or opouttv, and the like.
The place at which anything happens is sometimes represented by the Greeks as that towards which any one proceeds, the process rather than the result being prominent in the thoughts. This peculiarity is exemplified in iraptivat and wapaytyvtoBai used with tic and an accusative, as napuvm tic Ttva Toitov, to be present at a certain place; waptivat tiri To fOifia, to ascend the speaking place (the rostrum (rostra r), or what in French is called On tribune): ovXXtytoBai tic x^piov, to assemble at a place; ovvtXdtiv tic iv or tij rairov, to meet in one spot; avofiatviiv tc xupiov, to land at a place.
With verbs which signify a spreading in space, the Greeks use tic, with an accusative. Such verbs are, ItaStiovat, iiaoirtipuv, etc.; as ItaliSovat tic rnv iroXiv, to spread over the city.
The relation of movement or extension from a place is often used by the Greeks where in English we conceive of the relation implied in at or on, and consequently they employ tc and turo in such instances; as with verbs signifying to hang, to suspend, e.g. nptpao8ai tic rivoj, to hang on something; cptfiavvvvai ft rivoc, to suspend from; avairrtiv Ik rivoc, to attach to; also, ano rivoc, to hind to.
The same thing takes place with general indications of place, as tic liKtag, on the right hand; t£ aptortpac, on the left hand; Ik irXaytov, on the flank; tc rov tvavnov, opposite, on the opposite fide. If a local indication is annexed attributively to the subject or the object, and the verb is of that kind which denotes a removal fiom a place or an operation from a point, the Greeks employ the prepositions which correspond to that relation, namely, tc and airo (rarely irapa) with the genitive. In such cases we, in English, should use in, or on, or at: e.g. o\ tc rnc jroXtwc tJi/XSov those in the city went out. roue tc row Thy,ou£ orpariiurac t£tf3aXov they drove out the soldiers who were in the castle
The proper place, as indeed the name (pate, before, and pom, I put) indicates, of the preposition, is immediately before the noun. There are, however, some deviations.
The preposition sometimes comes after the noun. This is very common in poetry. In prose the deviation is found chiefly with ivtxa; sometimes with irtpi, in connexion with the genitive, e.g. tj/titiv ivfxa, on our account; rovrov ivixa, on that account; oopiac irtpi, concerning wisdom. Also avtv stands after the relative pronoun in the genitive case, uv avtv.
If the substantive to which the preposition belongs is accompanied by an attribute, the preposition is put between the two, frequently in poetry, rarely in prose; e.y. ovitv cY aXXo, on no other account; x90V0V t-i irokvv, for a long time.
Between the preposition and its case, there are interposed connective or determinative particles, which cannot stand at the beginning of a sentence; such as ptv, St, rt, oiv, roivov,
Jap, yt, cn, e.g. tv fitv ry SnfLOKpana, in the democracy; irapa ( rote aXXoif, with the rest; r poc rt To at Xxov, in regard to the future; tv yap tipijvy, in peace; cara yt To Svvarov, at least as far as possible; iroXXwv !n ovv ivtxtv, for many reasons; aptriic ovv wtpt, concerning virtue, then.
Other words also, which are used parenthetically, may be 1 interposed between a preposition and its case; as oi/iai, I think; and uc tiroc Mirtlv, so to say; e.g. tv o7/iai iroXXotft probably in many; irapa yap olpai rove vofiovt, contrary to the laws, I think.
In the connexion of several ideas, words depending on the same preposition require the preposition to be repeated before each it' there is a strong contrast between thorn, or if the pre* position is used emphatically; but net otherwise.
ayvpvaoruc txtiv irpoc rt ^vxn cat OaXiri| ,
to be undisciplined for cold and heat. The preposition is repeated with relatives, and with nouns in apposition, when the two members are expressly separated, from each other; especially when the relative clause precede^) the demonstrative: e.g.
ovc tori avvTopuTipa mor irtpi wv av /3ovXy coctiv ^poviuoc there is not a more ready way than to be wise
tlvai n ro ytvtoBai irtpi rovruv ppovi/iov in those things in which you wish to appear wise. trap' >;/iac Qoitu U; irapa piXouf visit us as friends. The prepositions give rise to a variety of idiomatic phrasc% ome of which I will subjoin, with English renderings.
Rule 16.—When two noons are joined forming a compound noun, and showing the matter of a thing is made, the preposition di is put between the two nouns.
Vedo una eata di mattoni, I see I E an dio M legno, it is a
a brick house | wooden god
Eceo la tiatua di marmo, behold I Datemi un orologio d"aro, give
the marble statue | me a gold watch
Ho perduto un anelio di diamanti, I have lost a diamond ring.
Rule 17.—The Adjective, in Italian, agrees in gender and number with the substantive to which it refers.
Rule 21.—Italian adjectives are generally placed either before or after their substantives.
Un nobile aspetto, or un aspetto La nuova spota, or la sposa nobile, a noble face nuova, (the new spouse)
Un buon amico, or un amico the bride
buono, a good friend II gran male, the great evil
Un brutto negozio, or un nego- Egli avesse la barba grande, he zio brutto, a bad affair had a (great) long beard
Suìe 22.—Italian adjectives are placed after the nouns, when they express—
Un principe Italiano, an Italian I Za lingua Spagnuola, the Spaprince | mah language
Una dama francese, a French I La politica Romana, the Roman lady | politics
La republica Americana, the American republic.
2. The shape or form.
Una tavolo quadrata, a square Una chiesa
Un» forma ovale, an oval form Un
3. The state of the elements.
Un tempo freddo, cold weather Un aria salubre, a wholesome Una terra arida, dry ground air
Un vento caldo, a warm wind Un fuoco intenso, an intense fire 4. Colours.
Un abito turchino, a blue coat | Un vino bianco, a white wine Una sedia indorata, a gilt chair j Un fior giallo, a yellow flower Cm occhio rosso, a red eye.
Vn frutto dolce, sweet fruit I Un sidro argo, sour cider
rhe following adjectives have different meanings, according as they are placed before or after the substantive; as,
sigillo rotondo, seal
along a round
Rule 24.—The same adjectives, bello, buono, grande, santo, do not lose their last syllable before nouns beginning with an 5 followed by a consonant.
Singular. Bello spozo, fine husband Buono stato, good state Grande strepito, great noise Grande spaia, a long sword Santo Stefano, Saint Stephen
Begli sposi, fine husbands Buoni stati, good stales Grandi strepiti, gTeat noises Grandi spade, long swords Santi Stefani, Saint Stephens
La rosa è più bella della viola, the rose is more beautiful than the violet
Il maestro è meno dotto dello scolare, the master is less learned than the scholar
La Germania è più grande, e più potente dell' Italia, Ger
Rule 28.—When than is followed by an article, or a sive pronoun, it is translated only by di.
Egli è più sciocco di voi, he is
more silly than yon Sono meno esperto di lui, I am
less experienced than he Giorgio i più astuto di Pietro,
Cesare è stato più felice di Pompeo, Caesar was more fortunate than Pompey
Vostro padre è più dotto di me, your father is more learned than I
George is more cunning than Peter
LESSONS IN SPANIS H.—No. XX.
OP THE PASSIVE VERB.
Tub passive verb is generally rendered in Spanish byser, and always when the subject of the verb is acted upon by an agent, that is, when in English it would be accompanied with the preoosition by; as,
Este discurso/ae escrilo por Diego, this discourse was written by James.
The passive verb must be rendered in Spanish by tstar when the past participle is used adjectively, that is, when the subject of the verb does not seem so much to be acted upon by an agent as to have its state or condition described; as.
El discurso estuvo Hen eterito, the discourse was well written.
El libro estd correjido, the book is corrected.
The passive verb formed by ser is used in Spanish in the present and imperfect of the indicative mood, only when it is designed to express a mental act or a state of the emotions , as,
Maria ei amada de Carlos, Mary is loved by Charles.
When a mental act or a state of the emotions is not expressed, the passive verb, if it be used, must not be in the present or imperfect of the indicative mood: thus we cannot say, el libro es escrito por un Espanol, the book is written by a Spaniard, but, el libro ha sido escrito por un Espanol, the book has been written by a Spaniard.
When a mental act or state of the emotions is expressed, the prepositions de or por may be used after the passive verb before the agent; but when a mental act or state of the emotions is not expressed, por only can be used; as,
Maria es amada de (or par) Todas las eosat fueron hechat Curios, Mary is beloved por Dios, all things were by Chatles. made by God.
The reflective pronoun se is often used with verbs of the active voice, which are required to be rendered in English by the passive.
OF THE RBGIMEN OV VERBS.
The object or regimen of the verb is either direct or indirect. The direct regimen is that on which the action immediately falls without the aid of any preposition; as,
Dog una pluma, I give a pen.
The indirectcegimen is that on which the action of the verb cannot lull without the aid of a preposition; as,
Dijo d la muger, he-said to the woman. Sometimes both regimens are required after the verb j as, Diii ui a pluma a' la muger, he-gave a pen to the woman.
When the object of an active verb is a person or inanimate thing personified, it must be preceded by the preposition a';*
Diego vie a la madre de Juan, La muger a' quiet vimot no es j
James saw the mother of riea, the woman whom we
John. saw is not rich.
Diet recompensara' a' lo$ buenos, Vii a' la que me did dinero, heGod will-reward the good. saw her who gave me
El tol alumbra a1 la lierra, the money, sun enlightens the earth.
Sometimes the harmony of the sentence requires the tl to be suppressed, especially after the persons of the verb tener, to have, or to possess; as,
Tengo un hijo y tree hyas, I-have one son and three daughters. One verb governs another in the infinitive mood; as,
Quieren imitarl*, they-want to-imitate him.
Some verbs, as a general rule, require the preposition a' before the infinitive which they govern; such are those which mean, to attempt, to come, to go, to begin, to devote, to offer, to dare, to serve, to invite, to learn, to teach, to urge, to assist, to call, to advise, to submit, to prepare, to compel, to decide, to remain, and to accustom one's self; as,
is sometimes required to be rendered by another mood in English; as,
Some verbs generally require the preposition de before the infinitive which they govern ; such as those which mean, to cease, to be glad, to be ashamed, to resolve, to deprive, to fail, to finish, to abstain, to pity; as,
Dejo de estudiar, he-ceased to- I No faltart dt hacerlo, I-will■tudy. l not fail to do it.
When the preposition "to" in English is used before the infinitive in the 6ense "in order to" (as, he labours to acquire fame, meaning, he labours in order to acquire fame), the preposition para is used in Spanish before the infinitive; as,
Elhombre fue criadopara aspirar of lafelieidad, man was created ir.-order-to aspire to felicity.
When the preposition " to'' in English is used in the sense "for the sake of," the preposition por is used in Spanish before the infinitive; as,
Juan lo dice, por deeirlo, John says it for-the-puke-of saying it Sometimes que precedes the infinitive instead of por or para;
Time algo que decirte, he-has something (which) to-tell thee.
The infinitive is often used without any preposition before it, especially when it is governed by verbs which mean, to be able, to permit, to wish, to endeavour, to make, to feign, to owe, to seem, to be wont, to know, to avail, to see, to hear, to succeed, to hope, to be necessary, to think, to believe, to promise, to deign, to be the duty, to pretend, to judge, to prescribe, to require, to suffice; as,
No ptiede hacerlo, he-is not I Deieo uprtnder, I-wish toable to-do it. I learn.
The infinitive in Spanish, when used as a present participle in English may take any preposition before it; as,
When in English a reflective verb, or a verb implying command, governs an infinitive in the passive voice, in Spanish this infinitive must be in the active voice; as,
El rey se lo mando dar, the king No te dejes venter de lo mala, ordered it to-be-given to- suffer not thyself to-behim. overcome of evil.
The above examples literally would be rendered, " the king to-him it ordered to-give," and " not thyself suffer to overcome, of that which is evil.'
When a verb is governed by another in English, and can be rendered in another mood by using the conjunction "that," this latter mood should be employed in Spanish; thus, instead of saying, I think him to be learned, we can say, I think that he is (cr may be) learned; and instead of, I requested him to go, we can say, I requested that he should go; which latter form of construction should generally be adopted in Spanish;
Espero que tendri el gusto de verle en breve, I-hope to have (that I-shall-have) the pleasure of seeing him soon.
Or VERBS FOLLOWED BY CBRTAIN PREPOSITIONS.
Verbs which signify to compare, to give, to yield, to resist, to concern, to belong, to refuse, to ask, generally require the preposition a before the noun to which the action of the verb passes over; as,
Ella te parece & eu madre, she I Dcmanda sabiduria at Senor, resembles her mother. I he asks wisdom from (to| the) Lord.
Sometimes verbs having the sense, to remove or to take away, require the preposition d before the noun to which the action of the verb passes over; as,
Lot voiles abundan de Irigo, the valleys abound with (of) wheat.
Lot diseipulos se asombraron de sus palabrat, the disciples
Verbs denoting to be abundant, to lack, to be astonished, to blame, to repent, to pity, to make use, to absolve, to make sport, to remember, to forget, indirectly govern a noun by means of the preposition de; as,
were astonished at (of) his words.
Llenaron la data de perros, theyfilled the house with (of) dogs.
Olvidar, to forget, is followed by de only when it is used as a reflective verb; as,
Olvidarse de lo pasado,* to- 1 Olvidar tu nombre, to-forget his forget the past. | name.
The verb ter, when used to imply property or possession, requires the noun denoting the possessor to be preceded by the preposition de; as,
El libro et de mi padre, the book belongs to (is of) my father.'
Le generally precedes nouns which denote the causes of which the verb explains the effect; as,
Tiembla de miedo, he-trembles | Sus ojos se banaron de lagrimas,