« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
sometimes made into one; in translation, you must resolve the compound into its component parts: e.g.
rtc Ttvog airioQ toriv;
who is to blame? and for what is he to blame?
As to negatives in indirect questions, ov is employed when you wish to ascertain whether a predicate should be denied of a subject, but fin when a doubt is expressed whether a predicate should be annexed to a subject: e.g.
ov Tovto yt Bavaroc ovofiaZtrai, xu,P'"l">S ^"X'/C a7ro ow/taroc;
is not this called death, namely, the separation of the soul from the body?
vortpov fitav Qwutv tivai, n fin Qw/uv
should wc affirm or not affirm this to be violence?
Our yes is represented by the Greek vat, and our no by the Greek Ovk and ovxt; vat and owe, however, are employed less frequently than the corresponding English particle', since affirmative and negative answers are given by the repetition of some word in the question, or by some other fotm. You may answer "Yes," by means of adverbs; as, iravv, uaXa, uakiara, rravrairaat, mostly in union with ye and Koi, which strengthen the affirmative; also with the intensives, fttv, ovv, fitvrot, rot, Ijjra. As negatives, we find oviafiwc nKiara yt An affirmative may also be uttered by fnpu, or <pi]/i' eyw, "granted;" tan ravra, "it is so;" toriv oiirwc; and a negative, by ov fnfu, " I deny it."
Repetition is often employed : e.g.
pJije ra KtipvxQtvra; yln
otaB' oiv d Xe£at aot 8t\w; Ovk olla
dost thou know what I wish to say to thee r I do not know.
Ovk axovirt rov Ki/pvKoc; axovofitv
Sometimes in the answer more is implied than in the question; that is, the matter asked is affirmed and something is added: e.g.
Eauaa Snra a' tZtictfi$a rt Yq°voc; (tamoat /it) Wot'
(Yes, thou hast saved me) and sent me to behold this
An imperative sentence contains an expression of the speaker's will. As this expression is more or less decided, you have either a request or a wish. A request is set forth by the imperative, a wish by the optative. The negative in imperative sentences is the particle fin. The imperative of the aorist and the imperative of the present are employed, with this difference, that the imperative of the aorist is used when a strictly single act is intended, and the imperative of the present when continuance or repetition is meant. In the passive, the Greeks have a perfect imperative, by which they expressed a completed and continued condition. To the optative, as expressive of a wish, there may be prefixed the particles fi and u9t, 0 that.
The imperative, which properly expresses a command, may be used so as to imply a concession or permission (imperaticus etneessivui): e.g.
Tovto tria brry Tip fJew ptXov
let this take its course as God pleases.
As a representative of the imperative you may, with a softened import, employ the subjunctive: e.g.
pijCtvi ovuQopav ovtifaoyc
you should not reproach any one with his misfortune.
For the same purpose you may employ the optative without av; e.g.
Also the optative with av, when hesitation is intended.
E la, ttscita dalla camera, e stata alquanto, torni dentro piangendo, she went out of the room, and, after some time, she came in with tears in her eyes
La Lauretta eon maniera alquanto pietosa cominciò così, Lauretta thus began in a manner rather pathetic
Alquanti, che risentiti, erano alt arme corsi, «' uccisero, they murdered several, who,
Hale 53.—Altro, signifying differently, something else, another, etc., may be used alone or with a substantive; in the Utter case, it agrees with the substantive in gender and number.
'ho perdonato io, another
Lapo alquanto spazio ella a me ritornò, after a little time she came back to me
Alquante lagrime mandale per gli occhj fuori, comincio ad attendere quello che la gentildonna gli rispondesse, hav ng shed tears, he waited for the lady's answer
Altro avresti dello, se tu m'avessi veduto a Roma, you would have spoken differently, had you seen me at Rome
Sembiante facendo di rider d" altro, feigning to laugh at something else
Un altro non vi avrebbe perdonato così facilmente, come
would not have pardoned you as easily as I have done
Datemi un altro bicchiere di quel buon vino, give me another glass of that good wine
Altri tempi, altri costumi, other times, other manners
Potile 60.—The Italians make use of the Present to expre that a thing is, or is doing, at the time in which we epeak.
Io scrivo una lettera, I am writ-
Rule 61.—The Imperfect is used in Italian to express a past action as present, or going on when another occurred, which, is also past.
/ fanciulli cantano quandi hanno paura, children sing when they are in fear
La generosità ci guadagna i cuori, generosity gains our hearts
& proibito i! far male, it is forbidden to do evil
Sen è civile i* interrompere gli altri quando parlano, it is not polite to interrupt others when they speBk
Il suo fare mi piace, his manners please me
Applicatevi allo scrivere ed al parlare, apply yourself to write and to speak
JT tempo di cominciare a parlar Italiano, it is time to begin to speak Italian
Le opere impedite in mezzo all eseguire, the works stopped in the midst of the execution Non avere, have not (thou) Nor, essere, be not (thou) Non amare, love not (thou) Non credere, believe not (thou) Non servire, serve not (thou) Questo è un frutto da mangiare,
this fruit is good to eat Mia sorella i andate a passeggiare, my sister is gone to take a walk
Rule 67.—The following verbs have no preposition after them 'jefore a following infinitive :—
Potere, to be able
it is necessary Convenire, to agree Dovere, we ought Fare, to do Intendere, to i Lasciare, to let Osare, to dare Parere, to seem
farlo venire? what would
you do, if you could not
make him come? Possono andare al teatro, they
may go to the play Io voglio leggere, I will read
Bisognò subito mandare a cercare il dottore, it was necessary to send for the physician immediately
Debbo parlare, 1 ought to speak
Che farete mai, se non poteste
Rule 68.—The following verbs have di after them before following infinitive :—
Degnarsi, to deign
Abborrire, to abhor
Accadere, to happen
Accennare, to show
Accertare, to assure
Accomandare, io recommend
Accordare, to grant
Accorgersi, to perceive
Affliggersi, to grieve
Ammonire, to admonish
Annegarsi, to be weary
Ardire, to dare
Arrischiare, to venture
Assicurare, to assure
Astenersi, to abstain from
Attentarsi, to attempt
Avvedersi, to perceive
Avventurare, to venture
Avvertire, to admonish
Avvisare, to inform
Badare, to mind
Biasimare, to blame
Bramare, to wish
Cessare, to cease
Cercare, to seek
Chiedere, to ask
Commendare, to commend
Comandare, to command
Commettere, to commit
Conchiudere, concludere, to conclude
Concedere, to grant
Contenersi, to refrain one's self
Consigliare, to advise
Ascenders, to excite
Acvezzarsi, to accustom one's
Avezzare, to accustom
Esporsi, to expose one's self
Principiare, to begin
LESSONS IN SPAN IS H.—No. XXII.
OF THE CONJUNCTION.
Conjunctions are simple,—that is, such as consist of a single word; or conjunctive phrases, such as consist of more than one word. They may be divided according to their meaning into the following classes:—
1. Copulative, which simply unite words or sentences together; as, y, and: tambkn, also.
2. Disjunctive, which connect words or sentences at the same time that they disjoin the sense; as, >>, or.
3. Adversative, which express opposition of meaning while they connect; as, mas, but; pero, but, sin embargo, notwithstanding.
4. Comparative, which serve to compare words or propositions; as, como, as; asi, so; oomo si, as if.
6. Conditional, which express a condition; as, si, if; eon tal gut, provided that.
6. Concessive, which serve to express something granted; as, antique, wen if; dado que, granted that.
7. Conclusive, which express a conclusion or inference; as, de aqut, hence ; por esto, theretore.
8. Causal, which express a cause or reason; as, porque, because; puts que, since.
9. Temporal, which serve to express a relation of time; as, antes que, before; dtspues que, alter.
10. Final, which express an end or purpose; as, para que, that, in order thai; a fin de que, to me end that.
MANNEH OF TSINO CERTAIN CONJUNCTIONS.
Sino, meaning but, is used after a negative, unless the verb be repeated; and pero or mas, also meaning but, is used when no negative precedes; as,
Sino, meaning except, is used after an interrogation or after a negative, ana menos. also meaning except, is used when no interrogation or negative precedes; both words being rendered in English by but; as,
Quien lo hizo sino el carpintero t Ninguno hay butno sino solo who did it but the car- Dios, there-is no one good
penterr but God alone.
Vinieron ioios menos el juez, they all came but the judge.
The conjunction "but" is used in English with 6uch a variety of meanings that it is necessary, before rendering it into Spanish, to find what other word or words it really represents, as this latter word or phrase is generally that which is used to represent it in Spanish; thus,
It will at once be perceived that the irregularity in the use of the word "but" is chargeable to the English, not the
The conjunction "neither," followed by "nor," is rendered in Spanish by ni; and " nor" also by the same word; as,
S wear not, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor any other oath, no Jurcis, ni per el ehlo, ni por la iierra, ni olro juramcnto alguno.
At the end of a sentence, "neither," and also "either," if preceded by a negative, are rendered by tampoco; as,
She will not do it, nor he either (or neither), ella no quiero haccrlo, ni el tampoco.
The conjunction "either," followed by "or," is rendered in both cases by o, as,
Either he-is a knave or he-is a fool, 5 es piearo 6 es lonto.
The conjunction " both," followed by " and," is rendered by asi or lantu, and the "and" by eomo; as,
1'hou wilt-accompany him to his house directly, lest any accident may-happen to-him, tii le acompanartis d su easa al instante, no tea que le suceda algun fraeato.
Love not sleep, lest want mayoppress thee, no ames el sueno, para que no te oprima la indigencia.
We were-careful lest you should awake, euiddbamos de que no se dcsperlate vmd.
The conjunction "rather," when used in the sense of *' but," is rendered by antes or antes bien; as,
I do not owe him anything; rather he owes me something, yo no le debe nada, antes bien el me debs algo.
• The first " as " is here an cdrcrb, qualifying the adjective " strong."
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING.
Ix what has already been said, it has been been more than hinted that there are higher attributes than emulation, which the teacher should address, and which, if he is successful in calling them into exercise, will be quite sufficient to ensure the proppr application of his pupils to their studies. They have the merit, moreover, of being safe. They do not unduly stimulate the intellectual at the expense of the moral faculties. Their very exercise constitutes a healthy growth of the moral nature. Some of these we may briefly allude to.
I. A DESIRE TO OAIX THE APPROBATION OP THEIR PARENTS
And Teacher. The love of approbation is as universal in the human mind as emulation. Not one in a thousand can be found who does not possess it. Within proper limits, it is a desirable trait in human character. It is, to be sure, one of the selfish propensities; but among them all, it is the most innocent. Carried to an extreme, it would lead its possessor to crave the good opinion of the bad as well as of the good, and to become an obsequious seeker after popularity. This, of course, is to be deprecated. But there can be no danger of this extreme, as long as the approbation of parents and teacliert is the object aimed at. It implies in the child a respect for the opinions, and a confidence in the justice of his parents and teachers; and hence it implies in him a generous desire to please as a condition of being commended by them.
In this sense, the love of approbation may be appealed to by the teacher. He perhaps need not frequently use the language of praise. It will generally be sufficient, if the smile of approval beams forth in his countenance. If he is j udicious as well as just, this boon soon becomes a precious one to the child. It is a reward, moreover, which
"is twice blest; It blesseth him who gives and him who takes."
II. A DEsrss Of Advancement. This is emulation in its 3000! sense. It leads the child, as before remarked, to compare his present standing and attainments with what they should be, and to desire to surpass himself. This is ever commendable. Man was made for progress; and it is no unworthy aspiration when this desire fires the youthful breast. The teacher, then, may appeal to this desire, may kindle it into aflame even with safety,—because it is a flame that warms without confining that on which it feeds.
III. A Desikb To Be usEFi't. The good teacher should never fail to impress upon the child that the object of his being placed on earth was, that he might be of some use to the world by which he is surrounded. "No man liveth to himself, and no man dicth to himself." He can be thus useful by storing the mind with knowledge and the heart ■with right affections. He may be reminded of the connection between his present studies and the pursuits of life to which they may be applied. Some judicious hint at the future application of any branch is always a good preparation of the mind to pursue it. If there is a definite object in view, there will always be more alacrity in the labour of study; and this may be made to influence the young pupil as well as the more advanced. It is no small