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Lo dice acciocché, non diate a me la colpa, he said it that you may not lay the fault upon me
Affinchè ella gli scriva, in order that you may write to him
Benché sia difficile, bisogna però stesso, however it may be, we
must nevertheless conquer ourselves
Ancorché sia in età molto avanzata, nulladimeno gode perfetta salute, he enjoys perfect health, though in very advanced age
Verrò, purché non piova, I will come, provided it does not rain
Rule 83.—The following conjunctions so: indicative, and sometimes the subjunctive.
Fino che, finché, finattantochè, infino che, infinché, infinattantoché, till or until
Lo mio cuore non pun essere in pace, finnt'.antoché, egli non ti riposi in voi, my heart cannot rest, till it finds its repose in you
Che alcun non v" entrasse dentro, infinattantoché egli tornato fosse, that nobody should enter until his return
Niuna doversi muovere del luogo suo, finattantochè io non ho la mia novella finita, none of you are to stir from your places, till I put an end to my story
Stiper le rugiadose erbe, infinattantoché alquanto il sole fu alzato, eolla sua compagnia diportando se n' andò, she and all the company walked leisurely upon, the dewy grass until the sun was a little-higher
Chi te la fa, fagliele, e se tu non puoi, tienlati a mente finché tit possa, to him who plays you a trick, play another, and if you cannot, bear it in mind until you can
LESSONS IN SPANISH.—No. XXm.
OF THE PREPOSITION.
The prepositions are employed in surh a variety of ways in Spanish and in English, that each one is not always to be rendered from one language to the other by the same word. Thus de is not always to be translated into English by of; nor of into Spanish always by de. The following observations will serve, to show the manner in which the prepositions aro to be used.
"About," when it moans through, is rendered by por; when it means on, by sobre; when it means within, by en; when it means of, by de; as,
"According" to is rendered by tegun, and sometimes by para eon; as,
According to the orders "of According to him it-is-worth your-worship, segun lot nothing, para con él no
órdenes de vnid. vale nada.
"Among," when it means, of the number of, is rendered by entre or para entre; when it means, in the midst of, by en medio de; and when it means in, by en; as,
I send you as lambs among wolves, yo os envió como corderos en mtdio de lobos. Among many nations therewas not a king like him, en muchas naciones no había rey semejante o él.
Among the men there-is not one that is upright, entre los hombres no hay uno, que sea recto.
Among friends compliments are unnecessary, para entre amigos lot cumplimientos son escusados.
irado en tierra delante del
arca del Señor. The Dukes take-rank before
the Marquises, antes de los
Marqueses van los Duques. Before night-fall, antes de
anochecer. Before day, antes del dia.
The cause will-be brought before the judges, la causa se llevará ante los jueces.
He-went before them to pointout the way, iba delante de ellot para monstrar el camino.
Prostrated on the earth beforethe ark of-the Lord, pros
"Behind" is rendered by tras, or detrás de; as,
Behind the door, tras la puerta. | Behind them, detras de ellos.
"Below" is rendered by debajo de; as,
Below the lip, debajo del libio,
"Between" is rendered by entre; as,
To-discern between the good arid the evil, discernir entre lo bueno y lo malo.
"By," meaning at or in, is rendered by de; meaning future time, when, by para; meaning close to or alongside of, by junto á; and meaning through, by por; as,
By day, de dia.
Please to seat yourself by the window, tímase vmd. sentarse junto d la ventana. He-has made himself rich by wicked means, se ha /¡echo rico por matos medios.
"Concerning," meaning about or in regard to, is rendered by acerca de or tocante d; as,
Concerning that which we- I Concerning (or touching) this have spoken, acerca de lo I affair, tocante d esta pen que liemos Itablado. \ déncia.
"For," meaning during; on account of, for the sake of, or, in behalf of; in exchange for; for the purpose of getting; as; by (per); is rendered by por; and when it means, for the use
"Into," when it comes after the verb enter, and when it means inside of, is rendered by en; but after all verbs of motion (to enter, excepted) it is rendered by a; as,
Let-us-enter into this grove, I Pour oil into the lamp, eche entremos en este bosque. \ vmd. ocíete en la lámpara. Let-us-go into-the dining-room, vamos al comedor.
"Of" is rendered by de; as,
A friend of the king, un amigo del rey.
"On" or upon, meaning along, is rendered by en; meaning through, by por; meaning by, it is rendered by de; and meaning in contact with the upper surface of anything, by tobre; as,
Is-there danger on (or upon) Nothing ought to be affirmed
the road? ¿ hay peligro en upon mere probability,
el camino'! nada debe aflnnarse por una
Man lives not on bread alone, mera probabilidad.
el /tambre vive de solo It is on (or upon) the chair,
pan. está sobre la silla.
Sometimes "on" is rendered by d; as. d caballo, on horseback ; üpié, on foot; á bordo, on board. Upon, after the verbs, to count, rely, etc., is rendered by con; as, conlo con la amistaa, de Diego, I rely upon the friendship of James.
When "on ' in English is used before the days of the week or month, it is not rendered in Spanish; thus, ella llegó allí el tábado, she arrived there on Saturdav.
la muerte estaban en lervidumbre toda la vida. She trembles through fear, ella iiembla de temor.
"Through," meaning from one end or side to another, or on account of, is rendered by per; when it means by reason of, by de; as,
He-travelled through Spain,
viajo por Esparia. Through the fear of death
they were in bondage all
their life, por el temor de
"Till" is rendered by hasta; as,
The office is open till ten o'clock at night, la oficina esid abierta hasta las die: de la noche.
"To,!jwhen preceded by from, in such phrases as, from bad to worse, from time to time, is rendered by en; when it means of, by de; and iu other cases generally by d; as,
An uncle to John, un tio de
He-gave the inkstand to Mary,
From day to day, dc dia en dia. I A friend to his country, «» | amigo de in puiria. j
"Towards" is rendered by hdcia; as,
Here comes towards us the lady of the house, aqui viene hdcia nosotros la scnora de la casa.
"Under" is rendered by debojo dc or bajo; as,
Under the bridge, debojo delpuente.
"Ur.der" is rendered by so in the following phrases, so caps de, under cover of; so color de, under colour of; so pena de, under penalty of; so prttexto de, under pretext of.
"With," when meaning of, or from, or by, is rendered by de; in most other cases by con; as,
""AVhhin" is rendered by dentro de; as
I-shall-need it within three days, lo neecsilari dentro de Ires dias.
"Without," meaning destitute of, with exemption from, is rendered by sin; and when it means outside of, or beyond, by fuera de; as,
Treat me without ceremony, I To-buy without money, comtrdteme vind. sin ceremonia. | prar sin dinero. They-cast him without the city, le eeharon fuera de la ciudad.
Sin in Spanish is regarded as a negative preposition, and is therefore often followed by a negative conjunction; as,
, Sin otro fin ni motivo, without another end or (nor) motive.
There are other prepositions in Spanish, which, as they can be rendered in most cases by the corresponding English preposition, offer no difficulty to the learner. Such are para con, in
respect to; ademls de, besides; a pesar de, in spite of, notwithstanding; eerca de, near to; frente d, or cn frente de, opposite; en orden a, with regard to ; junto d, adjoining; por el medio de, across; durante, during.
The preposition entre, between, when it comes before personal pronouns, does not govern them in the objective case in Spanish, but is followed by them in the nominative; as, entre tu y yo (and not entre ti y mi), between thee and me.
Prepositions, as in English, are placed before the word which they govern.
Care must be taken to distinguish the use of the same word in English, whether employed as a preposition or an adverb or conjunction. Thus in the phrases, after breakfast, before dinner, the words after and before are prepositions, and are to be rendered by dtspues de and antes de, respectively; while in the phrases, after I had departed, before I had dined, the words after and before are adverbs, and are to be rendered by despues quo and Cntcs que.
Segun, when used before a verb in Spanish, is not a preposition, but an adverb, meaning, according as; as, scgun ereo, according as I-believe; segun parecio, according as it-appeared.
OF THE INTERJECTION.
The position of the interjection in a sentence is determined by no fixed rules, but is allowed to vary, as in English, according as harmony and propriety may require.
The interjection etc, lo, behold, is used with the first objective case of the personal pronouns only, being joined to them, and forming one word; as,
The interjection he, see, behold, is prefixed to the first objective case of personal pronouns, and precedes adverbs, such as aqui, here, alii, there; as,
;Helt aqui! here he is! | / Hela aqui! here she is.
/ Ilcios alii! there they are!
More literally these exclamations might be rendered, "see him here!" "see her here!" "behold them there!"
When adjectives arc employed as interjections, they are followed by the preposition de, if a noun or pronoun come after; as,
i Desgraciado dc mi.' unlucky me! (or, unfortunate that I am!)
The interjection ay is followed by dc when used before a noun or pronoun; as,
/ Ay de mi! alas for me! (or, woe to me!)
LESSONS IN TRIGONOMETRY.—No. VL TRIGONOMETRICAL FORMUUE.
R cos. o cos. x = cos. 5 cos. c cos. x -|- «n. 6 cos. c sin. x; or, dividing each term by cos. .r, we obtain,
K- cos. a= a Cob. b cos. c -j- sin. 6 cos. e tan. jr.
Bat, by Theorem IL, Cor. 2, we have,
R cos. A cos. A sin. c
tan. x = = .
cot. c cos. c.
Hence, it2 cos. A = R cos. 5 cos. c -f- sin. b sin. e cos. A, (1) from which all the formulas necessary for the solution of spherical triangles may be deduced.
From this equation we obtain, by transposition, ■r- cos. a — a cos. 6 cos. c sin. b sin. e.
a formula which furnishes an angle of a triangle when the three sides are known.
If we add R to each member of this equation, we shall have,
By subtracting cos. A from a instead of adding, we shall obtain, in a similar manner,
which formula; enable nB to compute the sides of a triangle when the three angles are known.
By means of the polaT triangle, we derive from formula (1),
R: cos. A = cos. a sin. B sin. c — & cos. B cos. c. (6)
Ex. 1. In a spherical triangle Abc, there are given A=130° 30', B = 30° 50', and C = 32° 5'. Required the three sides.
Here half the sum of the angles is 96" 42' 30" = s
Either formula (2) or (3) may be employed to compute the angles of a spherical triangle when the three sides are known.
Ex. 1. In a spherical triangle there are given a = 63° 50', h = 80° 19', and c = 120° 47'. Required the three angles. Here half the sum of the sides is 132° 28 = «. Also, a — a = 6S° 38'.
Using formula (2), we have,
log. sine J, 132° 28' 9-867862
— log. sine 6, 80° 19' comp. 0-006232
— log. Bine c, 120° 47' comp. 0-065952
Formula (1) vftll also furnish a new test for removing the ambiguity of the solution in Case I. of oblique-angled triangles. For we have,
it5 cos. o — B, cos. i cos. e
cos. A = ;—: .
sin. o sin c
Now if cos. a is greater than cos. b, the sign of the second member of this equation will be the -same as that of cos. a. Her.ee cos. A and cos. a will have the same sign: or A and a •will be of the same species when cos. «>cos. b, or sin. a<sin. 6; that is,
Ifthe sine of the side opposite to th" required angle it lets than the tine of the other gioen side, there will be but one triangle.
But if cos. a is less than co6. b, then whether the right-hand member be plus or minus will depend upon the magnitude of con. c; or cos. c will have two values, corresponding to cos. A and — cos. A; hence,
If the sine of the side opposite to the required angle is greater than the sine of the other given side, tlicrt will be two triangles.
Formula (6) will furnish a test for removing the ambiguity n CaEe II. of oblioue-angled triangles. For we have,
from which it follows, as in the preceding ease, that if oos. A is greater than cos. B, A and a will be of the same species. But if cos. A is less than cos. B, then c may be taken eo as to render cos. a positive or negative. Hence, if (he sine of the nnglc opposite to the rewired side is less Oian the sine of the other given angle, there Kill'bc but one triangle; but if the sine of the angle opposite to the required side be greater than the sine of the other given angle, there uill be two triangles.
LESSONS IN HEADING AND ELOCUTION.
THE SCHOLAR'S MISSION.
ins wants of our time and country, the constitution of our modern society, our whole position,—personal and relative,— forbid a life of mere scholarship or literary pursuits to the great majority of those who go out from our colleges. However it may have been in other times, and other lands, here and now, but lew of our educated men are privileged
"From the loopholes of retreat To look upou the world, to hear the sound Of the great Babel, and not ieel its stir."
Society has work for us, and we must forth to do it. Full early and hastily we must gird on the manly gown, gather up the loose leaves and scanty fragments of our youthfullore, and go out among men, to act with them and for them. It is a practical age; and our Wisdom, such as it is, "must strive and cry, and utter her voice in the streets, standing in the places of the paths, crying in the chief place of concourse, at the entry of the city, and the coming in at the doors."
This state of things, though not suited to the tastes and qualities of all, is not, on the whole, to be regretted by educated men as such. It is not in literary production only, or chiefly, that educated mind finds fit expression, and fulfils its mission in honour and beneficence. In the great theatre of the world's affairs, there is a worthy and a sufficient sphere. Society needs the well-trained, enlarged, and cultivated intellect of the scholar in its midst; needs it, and welcomes it, and gives it a place, or, by its own capacity, it will take a place of honour, influence, and power. The youthful scholar has no occasion to deplore the fate that is soon to tear him from his studies, and cast him into the swelling tide of life and action. None of his disciplinary and enriching culture will be lost, or useless, even there. Every hour of study, Svery truth he has reached, and the toilsome process by which he reached it: the heightened
grace or vigour of thought or speech he has acquired,—all shall tell fully, nobly, if he will give heed to the conditions. And one-condition, the prime one, is, that he be a true man, and recognise the obligation of a man, and go forth with heart and will, and every gift and acquirement dedicated, lovingly and resolutely, to the true and the right. These are the terms; and apart from these there is no success, no influence to be had which an ingenuous mind can desire, ox which a sound and far-seeing mind would dare to seek.
Indeed, it is not an easy thing, nay, it is not a possible thing, to obtain a substantial success, and an abiding, influence, except on these terms. A factitious popularity, a transient notoriety, or, in the case of shining talents, the doom of a damning fame, may fall to bad men. But an honoured name, enduring influence, a sun brightening on through its circuit, more and more, even to its Berene setting,—this boon of a true success goes never to intellectual qualities alone. It gravitates slowly but surely to weight of character, to intellectual ability rooted in principle.—George Putnam.
THE TREASURE THAT WAXETH NOT OLD.
Oh! I have loved, in youth's fair vernal morn,
To spread imagination's wildest wing,
And seek the visioned realms that poets sing,—
Where streams of earthly joy exhaustless rise,
And shout their raptures to the cloudleBS skies,
But, ah! those fairy scenes at once are Sled,
Since stern experience waved her iron i
And bade me here of perfect bliss despond.
When Disappointment mocked my wooing heart,
And from forbidden pleasures loth to part,
And is there naught in mortal life, I cried,
Can soothe the sorrows of the labouring breast?
And weary nature lull her woes to rest i
Since I must every loftier wish resign,
Nor will I at my humble lot repine,
Oh! give me yet, in some recluse abode,
Encircled with a faithful few, to dwell,
Nor venomed tongues the tale of slander tell;
Beyond the reach of every human eye;
To each alluring ooject 'neath the sky,
"Ah, vain desire!" a still small voice replied,—
'' No place, no circumstance can Peace impart:
Sweet inmate of a pure and humble heart.
A Saviour's mercy seek,—his will perform:
His love, diffused, thy shuddering breast shall warm, His power provide a shelter from the gathering storm."
.. Oh! welcome hiding place! Oh! refuge meet
Through snares and darkness, to the realms of day 1
His healing beams; each gloomy cloud dispel: