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8. What is the square root of 852891037441 ? Ans. 923521.
9. What is the square root of 619.17364224? Ans. 248832.
To extract the square root of a decimal fraction, or of a number consisting partly of a whole number, and partly of a decimal, we have this
I. Annew one cipher, if necessary, to the decimals, so that their number shall be even.
II. Then point off the decimals into periods of two figures each, counting from the units' place towards the right. If there are whole numbers, they must be pointed off as in Case I. Then extract the root, as in Case I.
NotE.-If the given number has not an exact root, there will be a remainder after all the periods have been brought down, in which
case the operation may be extended by forming new periods of ciphers.
I. wha', the square root of 3486,784.01% Ans. 59-049. 2. What is the square root of 65536? Ans. 2'56. 3. What is the square of 0.00390625? Ans. 0.0625. 4. What is the square root of 17? Ans. 4123, nearly. 5. What is the square root of 37.5% Ans. 6-123, nearly. 6. What is the square root of 0.000001.2321 7 Ans. 0.00111.
To extract the square root of a vulgar fraction, or mixed number, we have this
I. Reduce the vulgar fraction, or mixed number, to its simplest fractional form.
II. Then extract the square root of the numerator and denominator separately, if they have exact roots; but when they have not, reduce the fraction to a decimal, and proceed as in Case II.
. ExAMPLES. 1. What is the square root of ###! Ans. #. 2. What is the square root of #####! Ans. #. 3. What is the square root of 43+? Ans. 24. 4. What is the square root of # of # of # of #7 Ans. #. 5. What is the square root of 44%
Ans. 2.027 nearly. 6. What is the square root of H !
Ans. 0.8044 nearly.
7. What is the square root of ##! Ans. 0.052 nearly.
ExAMPLEs INvolving THE PRINCIPLES OF THE squarE Root.
133. A triangle is a figure having three sides, and consequently three angles.
When one of the angles is right, like the corner of a square, the triangle is called a right-angled triangle. In this case the side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.
It is an established proposition of geometry, that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
From the above proposition, it follows that the square of the hypotenuse, diminished by the square of one of the sides, equals the square of the other side.
By means of these properties, it follows that two sides of a right-angled triangle being given, the third side can be found.
1. How long must a ladder be, to reach to the top of a house 40 feet high, when the foot of it is 30 feet from the house?
In this example, it is obvious that the ladder forms the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle, whose sides are 30 and 40 feet respectively. Therefore, the square of the length of the ladder must equal the sum of the squares of 30 and 40.
2. Suppose a ladder 100 feet long, to be placed 60 feet from the roots of a tree; how far up the tree will the top of the ladder reach Ans. 80 feet.
3. Two persons start from the same place, and go, the one due north, 50 miles, the other due west, 80 miles. How far apart are they 7 Ans. 94-34 miles, nearly.
4. What is the distance through the opposite corners of a square yard 7 Ans. 424264 feet, nearly.
5. The distance between the lower ends of two equal rafters, in the different sides of a roof, is 32 feet, and the height of the ridge above the foot of the rafters is 12 feet. What is the length of a rafter ? Ans. 20 feet. 6. What is the distance measured through the centre of a cube, from one corner to its opposite corner, the cube being 3 feet, or one yard, on a side 7 Ans. 5.196 feet, nearly. We know, from the principles of geometry, that all similar surfaces, or areas, are to each other as the squares of their like dimensions. 7. Suppose we have two circular pieces of land, the one 100 feet in diameter, the other 20 feet in diameter. How much more land is there in the larger than in the smaller? By the above principle of geometry it follows, that the quantity of land in the two circles must be as the squares of the diameters, that is, 100° to 20°, or as 25 to 1. Hence, there is 25 times as much in the one piece as there is in the other. 8. Suppose, by observation, it is found that 4 gallons of water flow through a circular orifice of 1 inch in diameter in 1 minute. How many gallons would, under similar circumstances, be discharged through an orifice of 3 inches in diameter, in the same length of time? Ans, 36 gallons. 9. What length of thread is required to wind spirally around a cylinder, 2 feet in circumference and 3 feet in length, so as to go but once around 7 It is evident that if the cylinder be developed, or placed upon a plane, and caused to roll once over, that the convex surface of the cylinder will give a rectangle, whose width is 2 feet, and length 3 feet; at the same time the thread will form its diagonal. Hence, the length of the
EXTRACTION OF THE CUBE R00T.
134. WE will first involve a number to the third power, that is, we will find the cube of that number.
Let the number be 45.
45°–45 × 45 × 45–91 125. But we will separate this number into parts; that is, into tens and units, and show by the aid of the exponent and the symbols, how the cube of the number when thus separated is obtained.
40°–H3 × 40°.5+3 × 40.5°–H5°–cube of 40––5. By a similar process we shall obtain (6+8)*=6°4–3 × 6°.8+3 × 6.8%+8°.
That is, the cube of the sum of two numbers is, the cube of the first number, plus three times the product of the square of the first number into the second, plus three times the product of the first into the square of the second, plus the cube of the second.
If we wish the cube of the sum of three numbers, as 6+8+9, we may unite the first and second by means of a parenthesis: thus, for 6+8+9, we may make use of