Early European History

Εξώφυλλο
D.C. Heath & Company, 1917 - 715 σελίδες
The battle of Salamis affords an interesting example of naval tactics in antiquity. The trireme was regarded as a missile to be hurled with sudden violence against the opposing ship, in order to disable or sink it. A sea fight became a series of maneuvers; and victory depended as much on the skill of the rowers and steersmen as on the bravery of the soldiers. The Persians at Salamis had many more ships than the Greeks, but Themistocles rightly believed that in the narrow strait their numbers would be a real disadvantage to them.

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Περιεχόμενα

The Babylonians and the Egyptians
24
The Phænicians and the Hebrews
29
The Assyrians
33
The World Empire of Persia
37
ORIENTAL CIVILIZATION 13 Social Classes
40
Economic Conditions
44
Commerce and Trade Routes
47
Law and Morality
50
Religion
52
Literature and
56
Science and Education
60
THE LANDS OF THE WEST AND THE RISE OF GREECE TO ABOUT 500 B C
65
Greece and the Ægean
66
The Ægean Age to about 1100 B C
72
Early Greek Religion
75
Oracles and Games
78
The Greek CityState
81
The Growth of Sparta to 500 B C
83
The Growth of Athens to 500 B c
85
Colonial Expansion of Greece about 750500 B C
87
Bonds of Union among the Greeks
90
THE GREAT AGE OF THE GREEK REPUBLICS TO 362 B C
93
Expeditions of Darius against Greece
95
Xerxes and the Great Persian War
97
Athens under Themistocles Aristides and Cimon
100
Athens under Pericles
103
The Peloponnesian War 431404 B C
108
The Spartan and Theban Supremacies 404362
111
Decline of the CityState
113
MINGLING OF EAST AND WEST AFTER 359 B C
115
Demosthenes and the End of Greek Freedom
117
Alexander the Great
119
42
122
The Alexander Mosaic Naples Museum
123
The Work of Alexander
124
44
124
A Greek Cameo Museum Vienna
127
The Hellenistic Age
128
The GræcoOriental World
133
47
134
The Peoples of Italy
137
A GræcoEtruscan Chariot Metropolitan Museum of Art New York
138
50
139
The Romans
140
Early Roman Society
143
A Roman Farmers Calendar
144
Roman Religion
145
52
149
Curule Chair and Fasces
151
Expansion of Rome over Italy 509 ?264 B C
152
Italy under Roman Rule
155
The Appian Way
157
The Roman Army
158
56
162
Column of Duilius Restored
163
Hannibal and the Great Punic War 218201 B C
164
Roman Supremacy in the West and in the East 201133 B C
168
Storming a City Reconstruction
170
The Mediterranean World under Roman Rule
171
60
174
Marius and Sulla
178
Pompey and Cæsar
180
The Work of Cæsar
186
Antony and Octavian
188
65
190
66
193
68
197
Pompeii
199
The Good Emperors 96180 A D
200
The Provinces of the Roman Empire
202
The Roman Law and the Latin Language
206
The Municipalities of the Roman Empire
208
72
210
A Roman Villa
213
The GræcoRoman World
215
CHRISTIANITY IN THE ROMAN WORLD 180395 A D
219
The Absolute Emperors 284395 A D
220
France 13371453 A D
223
Economic and Social Conditions in the Third and Fourth Centuries
224
The Preparation for Christianity
226
Rise and Spread of Christianity
229
The Persecutions
232
Triumph of Christianity
234
Christian Influence on Society
237
THE GERMANS TO 476 A D
239
Breaking of the Danube Barrier
241
Breaking of the Rhine Barrier
245
Inroads of the Huns
247
End of the Roman Empire in the West 476 A D
248
Germanic Influence on Society
250
The Classical City
252
Education and the Condition of Children
253
Marriage and the Position of Women
256
The Home and Private Life
257
CHAPTER PAGE 92 Amusements
264
Slavery
268
Greek Literature
270
Greek Philosophy
273
Roman Literature
276
Greek Architecture
278
Greek Sculpture
281
Roman Architecture and Sculpture
282
Artistic Athens
288
Artistic Rome
292
WESTERN EUROPE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 476962 A D
298
The Lombards in Italy 568774 A D
300
The Franks under Clovis and His Successors
303
The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the Short
305
The Reign of Charlemagne 768814 A D
307
Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Em pire 800 A D
311
Disruption of Charlemagnes Empire 814870 A D
312
Germany under Saxon Kings 919973 A D
315
Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman Empire 962 A D
317
The AngloSaxons in Britain 449839 A D
319
Christianity in the British Isles
322
The Fusion of Germans and Romans
325
EASTERN EUROPE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 395
328
The Reign of Justinian 527565 A D
329
The Empire and its Asiatic Foes
332
The Empire and its Foes in Europe
334
Byzantine Civilization
335
Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity
360
The Greek Church
363
The Roman Church
364
RISE AND SPREAD OF ISLAM 6221058 A D
367
Prophet and Statesman 622632 A D
370
Islam and the Koran
372
Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt
375
Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain
378
The Caliphate and its Disruption 6321058 A D
379
Arabian Civilization
381
The Influence of Islam
386
THE NORTHMEN AND THE NORMANS TO 1066 A D
389
The Viking Age
391
Scandinavian Heathenism
394
The Northmen in the West
397
The Northmen in the East
399
Normandy and the Normans
402
Conquest of England by the Danes Alfred the Great
403
Norman Conquest of England William the Con queror
407
Results of the Norman Conquest
410
Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily
412
The Normans in European History
413
FEUDALISM 149 Rise of Feudalism
415
Feudalism as a System of Local Government
416
Feudal Justice
419
Feudal Warfare
421
The Castle and Life of the Nobles
424
Knighthood and Chivalry
428
Feudalism as a System of Local Industry
431
The Village and Life of the Peasants
434
Serfdom
436
Decline of Feudalism
437
CHAPTER PAGE XIX THE PAPACY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 9621273
439
Church Doctrine and Worship
440
Church Jurisdiction
444
The Secular Clergy
446
The Regular Clergy
448
The Friars
450
Power of the Papacy
453
Popes and Emperors 9621122 A D
455
Popes and Emperors 11221273 A D
460
Significance of the Medieval Church
463
THE OCCIDENT AGAINST THE ORIENT THE CRUSADES 10951291 A D
466
First Crusade 10951099 A D
468
Crusaders States in Syria
472
Second Crusade 11471149 A D and Third Cru sade 11891192 A D
474
Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Con stantinople 12021261 A D
476
Results of the Crusades
479
THE MONGOLS AND THE OTTOMAN TURKS TO 1453 A D
483
Conquests of the Mongols 12061405 A D
484
The Mongols in China and India
487
The Mongols in Eastern Europe
488
The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests 1227
491
The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe
493
EUROPEAN NATIONS DURING THE LATER MIDDLE AGES 181 Growth of the Nations
496
England under William the Conqueror 10661087
497
England under Henry II 11541189 A D Royal Justice and the Common Law
499
The Great Charter 1215 A D
502
Parliament during the Thirteenth Century
505
Expansion of England under Edward I 1272
507
Unification of France 9871328 A D
511
The Unification of Spain to 1492 A D
519
Austria and the Swiss Confederation 12731499
522
549
525
EUROPEAN CITIES DURING THE LATER MIDDLE AGES 192 Growth of the Cities
529
City Life
531
the Guilds
534
Trade and Commerce
537
Money and Banking
541
Italian Cities
543
German Cities the Hanseatic League
547
The Cities of Flanders
549
MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION
556
Formation of National Languages
557
Development of National Literatures
558
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture the Cathe
562
drals
565
Education the Universities
566
Scholasticism
570
Science and Magic
572
Popular Superstitions
575
Popular Amusements and Festivals
579
Manners and Customs 554 558
584
THE RENAISSANCE 209 Meaning of the Renaissance
589
Revival of Learning in Italy
591
Paper and Printing
594
Revival of Art in Italy
597
Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy
600
The Renaissance in Literature
602
The Renaissance in Education
606
The Scientific Renaissance
607
The Economic Renaissance
609
CHAPTER PAGE 221 The Portuguese Colonial Empire
622
Columbus and Magellan
624
The Indians
630
Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America
633
The Spanish Colonial Empire
635
French and English Explorations in America
638
The Old World and the New
639
THE REFORMATION AND THE RELIGIOUS WARS 1517
643
Heresies and Heretics
647
Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reforma tion in Germany 15171522 A D
651
Charles V and the Spread of the German Reforma tion 15191556 A D
654
Zwingli and Calvin
656
The English Reformation 15331558 A D
658
The Protestant Sects
662
The Catholic Counter Reformation
665
Spain under Philip II 15561598 A D
668
Revolt of the Netherlands
671
England under Elizabeth 15581603 A D
674
The Huguenot Wars in France
679
The Thirty Years War 16181648 A D
682
APPENDIX Table of Events and Dates
688
INDEX AND PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY
695
600
705
602
706
606
707
609
710
614
711
Prince Henry and Da Gama 618
712
620
713

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Δημοφιλή αποσπάσματα

Σελίδα 612 - And all depends on keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature and so receiving their images simply as they are. For God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern of the world...
Σελίδα 38 - And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand : and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
Σελίδα 433 - And now, I dare say,' said Sir Bors, ' thou Sir Launcelot, there thou liest, that thou wert never matched of earthly knight's hands; and thou wert the courtliest knight that ever bare shield; and thou wert the truest friend to thy lover that ever bestrode horse; and thou wert the truest lover of a sinful man that ever loved woman; and thou wert the kindest man that ever...
Σελίδα 345 - He can no longer have God for his Father, who has not the Church for his mother.
Σελίδα 433 - ... and thou were the truest lover, of a sinful man, that ever loved woman ; and thou wert the kindest man that ever struck with sword. And thou wert the goodliest person that ever came among press of knights. And thou wert the meekest man, and the gentlest, that ever ate in hall among ladies. And thou wert the sternest knight to thy mortal foe that ever put spear in the rest.
Σελίδα 664 - With some changes, it is still used in the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. The...
Σελίδα 574 - I have read Aristotle many times, and I assure you there is nothing of the kind mentioned by him. Go rest in peace ; and be certain that the spots which you have seen are in your eyes, and not in the sun.
Σελίδα 472 - Let not love of any earthly possession detain you. You dwell in a land narrow and unfertile. Your numbers overflow, and hence you devour one another in wars. Let these home discords cease. Start upon the way to the Holy Sepulchre; wrench the land from the accursed race, and subdue it to yourselves.
Σελίδα 461 - The Roman Pontiff alone is properly called universal. He alone may depose bishops, and restore them to office. He is the only person whose feet are kissed by all princes. He may depose emperors. He may be judged by no one. He may absolve from their allegiance the subjects of the wicked. The Roman church never has erred, and never can err as the Scriptures testify.
Σελίδα 309 - Karl also tried to write, and used to keep his tablets and writingbook under the pillow of his couch, that when he had leisure he might practice his hand in forming letters; but he made little progress in a task too long deferred, and begun too late in life.

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