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THE

E L E M E N T S

OF

ARITHMETIC.

ORAL AND WRITTEN.

DESIGNED FOR PUPILS IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH

GRADES OF CITY SCHOOLS.

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Edue T 118.91.7 405
educ f 118.99.11

ROBINSON'S

V

PROGRESSIVE SERIES.

GRADED TO THE WANTS OF PFIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, GRAMMAR, NORMAL,

AND HIGH SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND COLLEGES.

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Nearly all the above books have recently been newly electro-
typed, and put in the latest and best style of typography. And while no
changes have been made, that will interfere in their use with any
previous editions, yet they have been thoroughly corrected, obsolete terms,
and useless matter expunged, and methods made to con form with present
law, and usage.

The Elements of Arithmetic” is designed as an
equivalent for, or to take the place, in graded schools, of both the In-
tellectual Arithmetic," and the “Rudiments."

These improvements have been malle to give new life to a series, that
has proved its real merits, by the very large circulation it has attained
against very great competition.

Copyright, 1877, by DANIEL W. FISH,

HARVARD COLLEGE LIERAN

GIFT OF
MRS. CHARLES S. PEIRCE

JUNE 28, 1315

PREFACE.

THIS

THIS book is mainly a compilation from other books

of Robinson's Series, with some additions of applied examples, drill exercises, etc.

It has been prepared especially for pupils in the third and fourth grades of the Public Schools of the city of Chicago, and in accordance with an outline furnished by the Superintendents of those schools and the Text-book Committee of the Board of Education.

In the preparation of this book care has been taken not to introduce more of theory than is necessary for the illustration and application of the elementary principles of arithmetic, and to compel the pupil at every step to apply his knowledge to the affairs of every day life, and thus to make it more practical than any other similar book before the public.

It has been the aim to go over as many subjects as could appropriately be treated in third grade work, and keeping in mind the thorough oral training of the preceding grades, much of the simpler matter found in primary arithmetics, has been discarded, and the place supplied with condensed, varied, and useful drill work.

Facility in the use of numbers is so provided for, by drill and review exercises, as to warrant the assertion, that if the third grade work is well done, according to the plan of this book, the mechanical operations of arithmetic will ever after be to the pupil, “an automatic process like the reading of the easiest story-book.”

The work for the fourth grade is, to a large extent, a comprehensive and enlarged review of the work of the previous grade. Fractions, Decimals, Percentage, and Interest are presented in this grade, but only in their elements, brief, and practical work," being the motto.

Many pages of applied examples have been supplied to break up the monotony of too much abstract work, and these examples have been prepared so as to give constant practice on all previous work, so that no principle or operation remains long unused.

And while this work has been prepared to meet a particular and local want, it is believed that it will also supply a demand that largely exists in graded, and in city schools, for an Elementary book, adapted to intermediate grades, and which shall follow a course of oral instruction given in the more primary grades, and be introductory to a more advanced and complete treatise on the subject.

It is particularly adapted to that large class of pupils, who do not pass beyond the fourth grade, in our city schools, and to those whose time and opportunities permit them to acquire a knowledge of only the elementary principles of arithmetic, and their application to ordinary business transactions.

August, 1877.

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Art. 1. A Unit is a single thing, or a number of single things regarded as a whole; as one, one ten, one boy, one year, one company.

Any figure standing alone represents one or more units ; thus, 6 represents 6 units.

When two figures are written together, the one on the right represents units, and the one on the left, tens; thus, 56 is 5 tens or fifty, and 6 units, read fifty-six.

When three figures stand together, the one on the right represents units, the next figure, tens, and the one on the left, hundreds; thus, 156 is 1 hundred, 5 tens, and 6 units, read one hundred fifty-six.

1. What do the figures 243 represent?

Ans. 2 hundreds, 4 tens, and 3 units, read two hundred forty-ihree.

2. Copy and read the following, naming the hundreds, tens, and units in each:

341; 473; 184; 537; 208; 782; 960; 872.

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