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Francis Schniede
CITIZENSHIP,

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SOVEREIGNTY.

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CITIZENSHIP.-We call him a CITIZEN, who bas the privilege of sharing with others in Government
deliberative or judicial: and a City (or Commonwealth] is the number [the associated bodyd of such, self-
sufficient for life.--Aristotle, Politics, Book III, c. 1.
SOVEREIGNTY.--A Nation, is a State,

a body politic, or a society of mex united together to
promote their matual safety and advantage, by means of their union,

From the very design that induces a namber of men to form a Society that has its common interests,
and onght to act in concert, it is necessary that there should be estabiisbed & public Authority, to order
and direct what ought to be done by each in relation to the end of the association. This Political
Autbority is the Sovereignty, and he or they who are possessed of it are the Sovereign.

It is evident, from the very act of the Civil or Political Association, that each Citizen subjects bilosell
to the Authority of the entire Body, in everything that relates to the common welfare. The Right of
all over each member, therefore, essentially belongs to the Body Politic, to the State; but the exercise
of that Kight may be placed in different bands, according as the Society shall have ordained.

If the Body of the Nation keeps in its own hands the Empire, or the RIGHT OF COMMAND [le Droit de
commander), it is a Popular Government, a Democracy; if it refers it to a certain number of Citizens,
to a Senate, it establishes a Republic, an Aristocracy; in short, if it confides the Empire to a single
person, the State becomes a Monarchy.- Pattet, Laro o Nations, Book I, c. 1, § 1-3.

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CHICAGO:
PUBLISHED FOR AMERICAN CITIZENS,
THE TRUE MAINTAINERS OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY.

1863.
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May 1913

The first volumo of the work or compilation, of which this publication is a compend, to be entitled

OUR FEDERAL UNION STATE RIGHTS AND WRONGS,

will be published about 15th November. The volumes will contain 500 to 550 pages each, similar to this in type and arrangement. One is to be published each six or eight weeks, and sold in muslin binding at $2.50.

Five volumes will probably suffice for the compilation, which is designed to furnish an epitome of governmental principles, historical facts, documents (each of which will be given entire), the substance of important debates, and of influential opinions in private and published letters, tracts, and other publications, and also a short examination of other Governments, to discover the right of our Revolution, and the superior excellences, and confused but not complicated systems, of our State and Federal Governments. Every family in the land needs this information, which is now scattered through hundreds of volumes, many expensive and inaccessible, in order to enable each Citizen, and the young lad who is soon to be a Citizen, to understand his individual rights, exalted privileges, responsible duties; and also the rights and wrongs of these Sovereign States. The wonder is not that we are in civil war, but that, with our ignorance of principles, and mistakes in theory, our practice has been so nearly correct.

To the statesman and politician, the compilation, if at all a success, will be particularly valuable; bringing together for the first time documents, opinions, and principles, to which every one needs to refer more or less often The marginal notes, with the thorough index which shall be supplied, will make reference quite convenient; and until superseded by something better, it will be the American statesman's manual. In such a work some would like room to record notes and comments; and should the demand justify, an edition will be printed on superior paper, with wide margin for writing, and in strong binding. Subscribers will please intimate their wish, and should an extra edition be printed, the volumes of this edition will be received in exchange, if uninjured, the party paying the difference in price.

The terms are already low, considering the present high cost of materials and the amount of reading supplied, but it is proposed to still further reduce them. The kind patron in New York and those in Chicago, who have thus far advanced the funds for publication, will not permit delay for the lack of means. But not to encroach unnecessarily on their liberality, it is proposed to supply the five volumes for $11 paid in advance.

Remittances can be made to the subscriber, either at Chicago, or directed to Station D, New York City, where most of his time must necessarily be spent until the publication is finished.

J. S. WRIGHT.

CITIZENSHIP

SOVEREIGNTY.

BY

J. S. WRIGHT,

AAGISTED BY

Prof. J. HOLMES AGNEW, D.D.,

CITIZENSHIP.-We call him a CITIZEN, who has the privilege of sharing with others in Government, deliberative or judicial: and a City (or Commonwealth) is the number [the associated body) of such, selfsufficient for life.-Aristotle, Politics, Buok III, c. 1. SOVEREIGNTY. A Nation, is a State,

a body politic, or a society of men united together to promote their mutual safety and advantage, by means of their union.

From the very design that induces a number of men to form a Society that has its common interests, and onght to act in concert, it is necessary that there should be established a public Authority, to order and direct what ought to be done by each in relation to the end of the association. This Political Authority is the Sovereignty, and he or they who are possessed of it are the Sovereign.

It is evident, from the very act of the Civil or Political Association, that each Citizen subjects hijosell to the Authority of the entire Body, in everything that relates to the common welfare. The Right of all over each member, therefore, essentially belongs to the Body Politic, to the State; but the exercise of that Right may be placed in different hands, according as the Society shall have ordained.

If the Body of the Nation keeps in its own hands the Empire, or the RIGHT OF COMMAND [16 Droit de commander), it is a Popular Government, a Democracy; if it refers it to a certain number of Citizens, to & Senate, it establishes & Republic, an Aristocracy, in short, if it confides the Empire to a single person, the stato becomes a Monarchy. Pattel, Lcrosof Nattous, Book,1, c. 1, $ 1-8.

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CHICAGO:
PUBLISHED FOR AMERICAN CITIZENS,
THE TRUE MAINTAINERS OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY.

1863.

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