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SENIOR SCHOLARSHIPS, 1851.
For the Senior Classes— Morning Paper.
Marcellus. “'Tis gone!
We do it wrong, being so majestical,
Bernardo. It was about to speak when the cock crew.
And then it started like a guilty thing
This present object made probation.
Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes
Horatio. So have I heard, and do in part believe it.
But, look, the morn, in russet mantle clad,
Hamlet : for upon my life,
As needful in our loves, fitting our duty ?”
And our vain blows malicious mockery."
What is the meaning of the last line ?
Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat
[poets. Explain this.
Illustrate the passage by quotations from other 3. “ And at his warning,
Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air,
and “erring"? In what significations are they more fre
quently used ?
This present object made probation.”
did the object make “probation”?
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated,
birth is celebrated” ?
6. Explain the lines, "then no planets strike,
No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm,
What circumstance made the time" so hallow'd and so gra7. “But look, the morn, in russet mantle clad,
Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill."
himself, or from Milton.
“As needful in our loves, fitting our duty.” 9. Give a correct paraphrase of the following passage, substi
tuting, in every instance, common expressions for those
which are figurative.
BACON'S NOVUM ORGANUM.
Afternoon Paper. APHORISM 59.
“But none are so troublesome as the idols of the market, which insinuate themselves into the mind from the association of words and terms. For thougb men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort, and reflect their force upon the understanding; whence philosophy and the sciences have been rendered sophistical and unactive. Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude: and when a more acute understanding, or a more careful observation, would remove these lines, to place them according to nature, words cry out and forbid it. And hence it happens that great and serious disputes of learned men frequently terminate about words and terms, which it were better to begin with, according to the prudent method of the Mathematicians and reduce them to order by definitions. But in natural and material things, even these definitions cannot remedy the evil; because definitions themselves consist of words, and words generate words." APHORISM 73.
“ But of all the signs of philosophies, none are more certain and noble than those taken from their fruits ; for fruits, and the discoveries of works, are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.
“And, therefore, as it is a caution in religion that faith be manifested by works; an admirable rule may be hence derived into philosophy that it be judged by its fruit, and held as vain if it prove barren; and this the more, if, instead of grapes and olives, it produce the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations."
1. “ For though men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort and reflect their force upon the understanding."
Explain this sentence, and point out the concealed figure in the latter
part of it.
2. “Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude.” Explain this, and shew that the opinion is correct. What is the meaning of “ words cry out ?”
3. Does not the objection that “ definitions consist of words, and words generate words," apply to the terms used in mathematics as well as to those which denote “natural and material things ?” Or is there any fundamental difference between the two subjects, which makes the objection apply to one of them but not to the other?
4. “ For fruits and the discoveries of works are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.” Give some examples in illustration of this truth. 5. What things are meant by the figurative expressions grapes
and olives” and “thistles and thorns”? Give examples from History of systems of philosophy which, instead of “ grapes and olives” have produced " the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations."