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TABLES

LONG MEASURE

Long Measure is used in measuring lines or estimating distances. The unit of long measure is the yard.

TABLE
12 inches = 1 foot (ft.)

3 feet = 1 yard (yd.)
5} yards, or 164 ft. = 1 rod (rd.)

320 rods = 1 mile (mi.) 1 mi. = 1760 yd.

5280 ft. = 63360 in.

SURVEYORS' LINEAR MEASURE

Surveyors' Linear Measure is used by surveyors and engineers in measuring distances, as roads, dimensions of land, etc. The unit is the chain.

TABLE
7.92 inches = 1 link (li.)

25 links 1 rod
4 rods, or 100 links

1 chain (ch.) 80 chains = 1 mile

SQUARE MEASURE Square Measure is used in measuring surfaces, as land, paving, plastering, boards, etc.

TABLE
144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot (sq. ft.)

9 square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd.)
30} square yards, or
2724 square feet s

1 square rod, or perch
160 square rods, or perches 1 acre (A.)

640 acres =

1 square mile (sq. mi.)

CUBIC, OR SOLID MEASURE

Cubic, or Solid Measure is used in measuring the contents of solids or bodies; as wood, stone, etc.

TABLE
1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft.)

27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd.)

16 cubic feet 1 cord foot (cd. ft.) 8 cord feet, or

128 cubic feet'} = 1 cord of wood

LIQUID MEASURE

Liquid Measure is used in measuring nearly all kinds of liquids. The standard unit of liquid measure is the gallon, which contains 231 cubic inches.

A pint of water weighs about one pound.

A cubic foot of distilled water weighs about 1000 ounces, avoirdupois weight.

TABLE
4 gills (gi.)= 1 pint (pt.)

2 pints = 1 quart (qt.)
4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal.)
31į gallons = 1 barrel (bbl.)
63 gallons = 1 hogshead (hhd.)

DRY MEASURE

Dry Measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, lime, etc. The standard unit of dry measure is the bushel. It contains 2150.42 cubic inches.

TABLE
2 pints = 1 quart
8 quarts = 1 peck (pk.)
4 pecks 1 bushel (bu.)

Grains, seeds, and small fruits are sold by stricken measure ; that is, the measure must be even full.

Coarse vegetables, large fruits, and bulky articles, such as potatoes, turnips, apples, etc., are sold by heaped

In practice we say 5 stricken measures equal 4 heaped measures.

measure.

TROY WEIGHT

Troy Weight is used in weighing jewels and the precious metals, as gold and silver. The unit of weight is the pound, which contains 5760 grains.

TABLE
24 grains = 1 pennyweight (pwt.)
20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (oz.)

12 ounces = 1 pound (lb.)

The carat is a unit of 4 imaginary grains employed in rating diamonds and precious stones, as the ruby, topaz, emerald, etc. The term is also used to express the fineness of gold. Thus, gold 18 carats fine consists of 18 parts pure gold, alloyed with 6 parts of some other metal, the whole mass being divided into 24 equal parts.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT

Avoirdupois Weight is used in weighing nearly everything except gold, silver, and jewels. The unit of weight is the pound. It contains 7000 Troy grains.

TABLE
16 ounces = 1 pound

100 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
20 hundredweight = 1 ton (T.)

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT

Apothecaries' Weight is used by physicians and apothecaries in prescribing and preparing dry medicines. The unit is the pound, which contains 5760 gr., like the Troy pound.

Medicines are bought and sold by avoirdupois weight.

TABLE
20 grains = 1 scruple ()
3 scruples = 1 dram (3)

8 drams 1 ounce (3)
12 ounces = 1 pound (lb)

TIME

The unit of time is the day.

TABLE
60 seconds (sec.) = 1 minute (min.)
60 minutes

1 hour (hr.)
24 hours 1 day (da.)

7 days = 1 week (wk.)
365 days = 1 common year (yr.)
366 days = 1 leap year
100 years = 1 century (cen.)

UNITED STATES MONEY

Money is the measure of the value of articles bought, sold, or exchanged.

TABLE
10 mills (m.)=1 cent ($ or ct.)
10 cents

1 dime (d.)
10 dimes = 1 dollar ($)
10 dollars = 1 eagle (E.)

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ENGLISH MONEY

English Money, sometimes called sterling money, is the legal currency of Great Britain. The unit is the pound sterling ; but there is no coin known by this name, the value being represented by the gold sovereign, à coin equal to 20 shillings sterling, or $4.8665 of United States money.

TABLE
4 farthings (far.) = 1 penny (d.)

1 shilling (s.)
20 shillings = 1 pound (£)

12 pence

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