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8. Contrast the chief Palæontological characters of
the Mesozoic and the Palæozoic Rocks.
9. What genera chiefly characterises the Cambrian
and the Silurian beds, with their subdivisions ?
10. Give the generic characters, and range in time, of
Ampyx, Orthis, Ogygia, Favosites, Pentamerus,
1. What meaning is attached by Keynes to “conno
tation?” Are names of attributes connotative? Give reasons for your answer.
2. How should weunderstand the sign “some” as used
in the traditional forms of proposition ? Prove your answer by referring to the relations of
propositions set forth in the square of opposition. 3. What advantages have been claimed for the explicit,
quantification of the predicate, and what objections have been urged against it?
4. On what principles would you proceed in reducing
alternative propositions to conditionals or hypotheticals ? Illustrate by the following propositions :-(a) Every Act of Parliament is either useful or mischievous; (b) Either rain must fall or the country will be impoverished.
5. Detect, and point out, any offences against the
general rules of syllogism implied in arguments (a) in figure 1 with a negative minor premiss ; (b) in figure 2 with affirmative premisses; (c) in figure 3 with negative minor premiss; (d) in figure 4 with affirmative minor premiss and universal conclusion.
6. Give examples of the different moods of hypothetico
categorical syllogism, and mention the fallacies to which this kind of reasoning is peculiarly subject.
7. What, if any, is the value of the fourth figure? Is
it true that “the fourth figure is only the first with a converted conclusion ?”
8. State the following in syllogistic form, and point
out fallacies, if any :-(a) Examinations are not necessarily adequate
tests of mental power, for mental power and the ability to work rapidly under stimulus do not
necessarily go together. (6) All who are in favour of women's suffrage
think that women have not hitherto been treated fairly. Since you agree that women have not been treated fairly, you should in consistency
support women's suffrage. (c) Those who possess industry and ability must
succeed; but some students have not these
qualities and must, therefore, prove unsuccessful. (d) The regulation of rates of interest should not
be attempted by law; for any law to this effect is mischievous if it restricts enterprise and useless if it be not obeyed.
9. The contents of a certain warehouse consist of
goods which are either cotton or woollen, or a mixture of both. When the goods are devoid of wool, and then only, they are imported goods of small value. What information can you draw from these premisses—(a) about the imported goods in which cotton is found, (6) about the goods which are free from cotton and not imported ? Work out this question by Jevons's Indirect Method.
1. “All attributes are to us nothing but either our
sensations and other states of feeling, or something inextricably involved therein.' Explain Mill's position here.
2. State, as fully as you can, the value attached by
Mill to the syllogism as a test of truth.
3. Show the importance of the axiom of the Uni
formity of Nature to the inductive logician. Can you reconcile this axiom with the statements that we do not always expect uniformity in the occurrence of events, and that the course of nature is infinitely various ?
4. To what extent is the Law of Causation affected by
the doctrine of the conservation of energy ?
5. Discuss the value of the Method of Residues (a) as a method of resea
search, and (b) as a criterion of proof. 6. Point out difficulties of induction arising from the
intermixture of effects. How inay these difficul
ties be surmounted ? 7. “The limits of Explanation are the limits of
Induction.” Explain this statement. Can these limits be exactly indicated, or can any general
assertion be made about them? 8. Discriminate between different classes of empirical
laws, and show the kind of evidence of which each is susceptible.
Professor Laurie. 1. State, as precisely as you can, the leading charac
teristics of the three great classes into which mental phenomena have been commonly divided. What is meant by the unity of these classes in
consciousness ? 2. Mention different forms of reflex or involuntary
attention. To what extent is it true that attention
intensifies a mental state ? 3. Show the importance of muscular movements and
local signs in perception.
4. How did Descartes endeavour to meet the doubt
that, in our perceptions of the material world, we might be the victims of continual error ?
5. Trace the influence of Descartes on Locke's dis
tinction between primary and secondary qualities.
6. Examine Spinoza's account of the relation between
mind and body, showing how this followed from the fundamental tenets of his philosophy.
7. Show the importance of the principle of the
uniformity of nature to the Berkeleian idealism,
adding any comments. 8. What were the preliminary assumptions of Hume's
sceptical philosophy? How did be apply these to the question of personal identity ?
9. How was Kant led to hold that the categories are
applicable only to phenomena of sense, and are yet independent of experience ?
Professor Laurie. 1. Examine the grounds on which Baldwin takes
exception (a) to the theory of the relativity of consciousness, and (b) to the assertion that every state of consciousness is the feeling of a relation between subject and object.