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matic body, the deputation of the constituted authorities, a vast number of military on horseback, and its own guard, the whole train marching in great state to the sound of military music. The directors were stationed in front of the statue of liberty, while the ministers and diplomatic corps took their places as had been previously concerted. The national guards on duty, divided into 14 bodies, representing the 14 armies, carried each a distinctive standard : to each of these corps were added a certain number of invalid veterans, or wounded soldiers, and care was taken to place them in the corps representing the army to which they originally belonged : these wounded soldiers, or veterans, conducted by officers, and accompanied with the colours of their respective armies, were to present themselves to the directory, who placed crowns on their standards. When all had taken their proper stations, the conservatory of music performed a military symphony by Louis Jadin ; after which a profound silence was observed, when the secretary-general read the decree, fixing the celebration of the festival, and pointing out its motive."

The success of the French, and the terror of the arms of the Republic, filled all the Italian States with consternation and alarm. The duke of Modena purchased a truce, for it could not be called a peace, at the enormous price of 10,000,000 of livres; 7,500,000 to be paid to the Republic, and 2,500,000 in provisions and military stores for the army; he was also to deliver twenty paintings from his gallery, to be selected by persons designated by the French.

Bonaparte having left Milan to go to Lodi, an attempt was made by the nobles and the partizans of Austria, to arouse the inhabitants to arms, to drive out their conquerors; the tocsin was sounded, a report circulated that the Austrians were reinforced by 60,000 men, marching to Milan ; that the army of Conde had arrived on the confines of the Milanese; and that the British had taken Nice. The tree of liberty was cut



down, hewn into pieces, and the tri-coloured cockade trampled under foot.

Bonaparte, informed of these proceedings, with 300 horse and a battalion of grenadiers, hastened back to Milan, ordered the leaders who were found in arms to be seized and shot, a number of distinguished persons to be arrested and held as hostages; imposed a fine for the discharge of domestics which had been done to induce them to take up arms, and signified to the archbishop and the nobility that he should hold them responsible for the public tranquillity. He issued a proclamation, charging the disturbances to the agents of Austria and the priests ; declared those villages that had not complied with his order of the 25th in a state of rebellion, and directed his generals to march into them, with troops sufficient to suppress the insurgents, to set them on fire, and to shoot upon the spot all who might be found with arms in their hands. All priests and nobles in the rebellious communes were to be arrested and sent to France as hostages; all villages where the tocsin was sounded were to be instantly burnt, and those where a single Frenchman was assassinated were to pay a triple contribution of the sum annually paid to the government, until they should deliver up the assassin. The execution of these orders was entrusted to the generals. The place where arms might be found concealed, was subjected to a heavy fine, and every house in which muskets were discovered was to be burnt unless the proprietor would disclose to whom they belonged.

The severity of these measures restored tranquillity, and spread extensively a general panic.

Bonaparte removed his head-quarters to Verona, leaving a garrison. The enemy having fled into the

Tyrol, he proceeded to invest Mantua, which required a formal siege, which the French possessed little means of undertaking. Intending to penetrate into the Tyrolese, the general addressed a proclamation to the warlike people of these lofty mountains, telling them



that he had occasion to pass through their territory to compel the court of Austria to a peace, necessary to all Europe; and that their persons, property, laws and religion should be respected, unless they suffered themselves by the agents of Austria to be led into acts of hostility which would call down upon their heads the terrible vengeance of the French army.

Bonaparte proceeded from Tortona, to Modena, and from thence to Bologna, having received the submission of Urbino, the garrison of 300 men surrendering as prisoners of war; and fifty pieces of cannon, with a quantity of arms and provisions, fell into the hands of the victors. At Bologna, the cardinal legate with all the officers of the etat-major were made prisoners, and four standards, with 114 pieces of cannon taken.

Bonaparte, from a real or affected regard to science, treated the learned men with great respect and attention. Whilst at Milan, he wrote a letter by order of the French government, to the celebrated astronomer Oriani, in which he says:

" The sciences,” said Bonaparte, in his letter to Oriani, “which ennoble the human mind, and the arts which embellish life, and transmit illustrious actions to posterity, should be peculiarly respected in free governments. All men of genius,--all those who have obtained a distinguished rank in the republic of letters, are Frenchmen, in whatever country they may have been born. The learned did not enjoy in Milan the consideration to which they are entitled; retired in the recess of their laboratories, they esteemed themselves happy, if kings and priests were kind enough to do thein no harm. To-day it is not so; opinion is free in Italy :-the inquisition, intolerance, and despotism

I invite the learned to assemble, and propose to me their sentiments on the means necessary to be taken, or the aid they may require, to give new life and existence to the sciences and fine arts. All those who may be desirous of going to France will be received with distinction by the government. The

are no more.



French nation sets a greater value on the acquisition of a learned mathematician, a painter of reputation, or any one who has distinguished himself, whatever may be his profession, than of the richest and most abundant city. Be you then, citizen, the organ of these sentiments to all at Milan distinguished for their learning."

This letter occasioned Oriani to wait on the commander in chief, and with others of a similar character, tended to conciliate the literati of Italy, and to attach them to the revolutionary cause. Bonaparte requested the professors of the University of Pavia to wait on him and propose the measures which in their opinion would give greater activity and success to that illustrious institution.


Armistice with the Pope-The success of Bonaparte excites ap

prehensions on the part of the Citizens, and the governmentsuccesses of the army of the Rhine-Pacification in the north -This leads the archduke Charles into Italy, when Bonaparte has to contend with all the forces of the allies—The battle of Arcola-victory of Rivoli-standards sent to Paris, and presented to the directory—The Pope breaks the treaty—Bonaparte attempts in vain to avoid hostilities with him-Victor invades the papal territories, and defeats the troops of the Pope, who sues for peace.

A DIVISION of the French Army arrived at Leghorn just as an English frigate was going out of the harbour, which was fired at, but without effect; and only a few hours before, forty English vessels fully laden left Leghorn.

At Florence, while Bonaparte was at dinner with the grand duke, a courier arrived with intelligence of the taking of the castle of Milan, which held out when the town surrendered. 2,800 prisoners, 150 pieces of



cannon, large quantities of powder, and military stores, were the fruits of the reduction of the castle. This intelligence, which was announced at the close of the entertainment, was unwelcome tidings to the grand duke; but if it was little calculated to increase the satisfaction which he felt in entertaining his distinguished guest; it confirmed the opinion that there was nothing left for him but submission.

On the 23d of June, an armistice was concluded with the Pope, which was to be followed by a definitive treaty of peace, to be negociated at Paris, the terms of which were sufficiently humiliating to the successor of St. Peter, and the head of the church, once the most powerful sovereign in Europe. The pontiff, who once trod on the necks of kings, made and unmade sovereigns, disposed of States and kingdoms, and as the great high-priest and vicegerent of the Almighty on earth; established an authority as “lord paramount,” and reigned over the heads of other sovereigns, was constrained to drink to the very dregs of the cup of humiliation. If the draught was bitter, it was one which his predecessors had liberally dealt out to others.

He was compelled to open his ports to French vessels, and exclude the flags of all nations at war with that Republic ; to permit the French army to continue in possession of the legations of Bologna and Ferrara, to surrender the citadel of Ancona, to give to the French republic 100 paintings, busts, vases, or statues, to be selected by commissioners to be sent to Rome for that purpose, among which were to be included a bust in bronze of Junius Brutus, and one of marble of Marcus Brutus ; also 500 manuscripts to be selected in the same way; and to sweeten the whole, his holiness was to pay to the Republic 21,000,000 of French livres, most of which was to be in specie or gold and silver ingots.

About this period the successful career of Bonaparte began to excite in the minds of real patriots at home,

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