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attempt has been made to show the actual working of the mind as it struggles with problems in the concrete life of the individual, the significance of the mental processes when they are brought to bear upon these problems, and particularly the growth in control over the forces of the world and of life that comes through the development and perfection of the higher psychical processes which we designate under the head of thinking. In this discussion the emphasis falls upon the psychological rather than the logical aspect. The dynamic aspect of the thinking process has been thrown into as bold relief as possible. Questions of function and sig. nificance are central in the discussion of all the various phases of the thinking process.

While the movement of thought is dominantly psychological, the whole book is written from a strong pedagogical bias. The significance for education, and also for the teaching process, of the psychological facts and principles is pointed out. This does not mean that educational theory has been worked out in detail, but rather that the educational bearing of the doctrines set forth has been indicated and, in many cases, illustrated to make it more intelligible. The writer has attempted to make the psychological doctrine herein presented stimulating and suggestive both to the parents and the teachers of children. • The first few chapters may prove to be a little harder reading than the others for those who are not specialists. I advise that they be read rapidly for the general movement of thought, without worrying too much about their perfect understanding. They are sure to clear up as the thought is further developed and applied in the more detailed and concrete discussions which follow. Afterwards, it may be well to reread the earlier chapters. They are introductory and fundamental in character; and, while they are elaborated rather fully for introductory chapters, yet they are necessarily condensed more than would be the case in a book devoted exclusively to general psychology. In other words, the writer has had to presuppose some familiarity with the simpler facts and principles of psychology.

References have been given only to a few books, those which are of most immediate value to the reader in amplifying, or helping to interpret, certain topics which fall within the limits of the discussion. These references are usually quite specific. It has not been my purpose to give a bibliography so much as it has been to give a few selections of the best and most relevant material. It has been presupposed that the general reader will not care for voluminous references, and that the specialist will easily help himself anyway. The selection of references has been made also with some regard to what is most probably easily accessible. For this reason, I have given no references to James' Principles of Psychology, but only to his Briefer Course and his Talks to Teuchers, which are more widely in use. Likewise, while I acknowledge personal indebtedness to Dewey's Studies in Logical Theory, to Baldwin's Thought and Things, and to Hall's Adolescence, I give no references to these works.

The point of view of this discussion of Psychology in general and of Thinking in particular was formulated and the main features of the outline were sketched four or five years ago in connection with the teaching of courses in Psychology and Pedagogy in the Normal School. Most of the material has been actually used in some form in my own classes. The impetus to elaborate and publish this material was suddenly checked by the appearance in rapid succession of O'Shea's Education as Adjustment, Angell's Psychology, and Horne's Philosophy of Education, all of which are written from a more or less explicitly biological point of view. My present discussion must, of course, be indebted to these works for much of suggestion and stimulus. Yet it seems as if there is still room for another psychological and educational discussion involving a similar point of view, but independent of these in its specific field. The essential

features of this presentation were given in lectures at the College of Education of the University of Chicago in the summer of 1907. The cordiality with which the class re ceived these lectures has served as the inspiration and the excuse for putting them into a more permanent form and presenting them to a larger audience.

I cannot send this little book out without recognizing my obligation to Prof. John Dewey for the large number of "seed” thoughts which have come from his lectures on Logic, Ethics, and Education. But the particular applications, developments, and formulations of these ideas, as well as the underlying movement of thought, are my own; and I alone must be subject to whatever criticism they may deserve on account of their defects. I am indebted for valuable suggestions to my colleagues, President Charles McKenny and Professor Herman C. Henderson, of the Milwaukee State Normal School, and also to Professor W. W. Charters, Ph.D., of the University of Missouri, who were kind enough to read my manuscript before its final revision.

IRVING ELGAR MILLER. State Normal School Milwaukee, Wisconsin

January, 1909

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