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SUPERFICIAL OR SQUARE MEASURE.

Superficial or square measure is used in measuring all kinds of surfaces, such as land, paving, fiooring, plastering, and everything which has length and breadth. Its denominations are, the mile, m.; the acre, a. ; the rood, r.; the rod, rd.; the yard, yd.; the foot, fl.; and the inch, in.

Gunter's chain, used by surveyors in measuring land, also in measuring distances, is 4 rods, or 66 feet, in length, and is composed of 100 links.

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sq. I.

of 1 sq. a.

1 sq. mile

640 sq. acres. 1 sq. a. 1 sq. acre = 4 sq. l'oods.

1 1 sq. acre == 160 sq. rods.

1 sq. rd. 1 sq. rood 40 sq. rods. 1

są.

rd. 1 sq. rod =304 sq. yards. 1sq yd. 2724 sq. feet. 1

sa.

ft. 1 sq.yard=9 sq. feet. 1 sq. ft. 1 sq. foot

144 sq. inches. / 1 sq. in.

16 of 1 sq. a. 40 of 1

sq. r. of 1 sq. rd. 1089 of 1 sq. rd. 1 of 1 sq.

ft.

4 121

4

1 sq. rod

of 1 sq.yd.

1 14. 4.

CUBIC MEASURE.

Cubic measure is used in measuring solids and capacities, or anything that has three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness. Its denominations are, the cord, c. ; the ton, t.; the yard, yd. ; the foot, ft. ; and the inch, in.

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128 c. ft. 1 cubic foot

of wood. 16 c. ft. 1 cubic foot

of wood. 40 c. ft. 1 cubic foot

of timber. 217 c. ft. 1 cubic foot

of 1 ton

40

1 cubic yard

yard, 1728 с. in. / 1 cubic inch

foot.

2 of 1 c.

1 cubic foot

172g of 1 c.

CLOT MEASURE.

This measure is used for measuring cloth, and other goods which are sold by the yard or ell.

Its denominations are, the English ell, E. el}; the French ell, Fr. ell; the Flemish ell, Fl. ell; the yard, yd.; the quarter, qr.; and the nail, na.

1 English ell = 5 quarters. 11 qr. = of 1 E. ell. 1 French ell

6 quarters. 1

qr. of 1 Fr. ell. 1 Flemish ell 3 quarters. 1 qr.

of 1 Fl. ell. 1 yard

4 quarters. 1 qr. of 1 yard. 1 quarter

4 nails. 1 nail of 1 quarter.

DRY MEASURE.

This measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, seeds, roots, salt, sand, oysters, coal, &c. Its denominations are, the chaldron, ch. ; the bushel, bu. ; the peck, pk. ; the quart, qt.; and the pint, pt.

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This measure is used in measuring porter, ale, beer, milk, and water.

Its denominations are, the hogshead, hhd.; the barrel, bbl.; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt.; and the pint, pt.

The beer gallon measures 282 cubic inches. 1 hogshead = 54 gallons. | 1 gallon =3 of 1 hhd. 1 barrel = 36 gallons. . 1 gallon

36 of 1 bbl. 1 gallon

4 quarts. 1 quart = of 1 gal.

WINC MEASURE

Wine measure is used in measuring wine, and all spirituous liquors, except porter, ale, and beer. Its denominations are, the tun, t.; the pipe, p. ; the hogshead, hhd. ; the barrel, bbl.; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt. ; the pint, pt; and the gill, gl.

The standard gallon of the United States is the wine gallon, which measures 231 cubic inches, and contains 8.3388822 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water.

The British standard imperial gallon measures 277.274 cubic inches, and contains 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water.

1 tun

of 1 tun. = 2 pipes.

1 pipe 1 pipe

2 hogsheads. 1 hhd. = 1 of 1 pipe. 1 hogshead = 63 gallons. 1 gallon = of 1 hhd.

of 1 bbl. 1 barrel 312 gallons. 1 gallon 1 gallon 4 quarts. 1 quart

of 1 gal. 1 quart 2 pints.

1 pint 1 pint. 4 gills.

1 gill

63

of 1 qt. of 1 pt.

MEASURE OF TIME.

Time is the measure of duration or existence. Its denominations are, the century, c.; the year, yr. ;

the month, mo. ; the week, wk. ; the day, d.; the hour, h. . the minute, m.; and the second, s.

1. century 1

year

100 years.
12 cal. mo.

1 year 1 year

1 day

146T

4 1461

Tio of 1 c. it of 1 yr. 112 of 1

yr. of 1

of 1 ino. + of 1 wk

yr.

1

year

1 c. mo.
1311z w. mo. 1 w. mo.
3654 days.
4 weeks.

1 week

1 month 1 week 1 day 1 hour 1 minute

17 days.

of 1 d.

1 day
24 hours. 1 hour
60 minutes. 1 minute
60 seconds. 1 second

2
60 of 1 h.

66 of 1 m.

The year is divided into 12 calendar months, as follows:

66 28

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66 31

66

66

10th so

66 31

January, ist mo., has 31 days. July, 7th mo., has 31 days. February, 20

August, March,

C6 31

September, 9th " 66 30 66. April,

October, May,

November, 11th 56 66 30 65 June,

December, 12th When

any year can be divided by 4 without a remainder, it is called leap year, in which February has 29 days.

3d
4th 66
5th 66
6th 66

66 30 66 31 66 30

66

66

66 31

CIRCULAR MWASURE.

Circular measure is used in measuring circles, latitude and longitude, and in computing the revolution of the earth and other planets round the sun. Its denominations are, the circle, c. ; the sign, s.; the degree, °; the minute,'; and the second,

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A sheet folded in two leaves is called a folio.
A sheet folded in four leaves is called a quarto, 4to.

A sheet folded in eight leaves is called an octavo, or 8vo.

A sheet folded in twelve leaves is called a duodecimo, or 12mo.

A sheet folded in eighteen leaves is called an 18mo.

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