SUPERFICIAL OR SQUARE MEASURE. Superficial or square measure is used in measuring all kinds of surfaces, such as land, paving, fiooring, plastering, and everything which has length and breadth. Its denominations are, the mile, m.; the acre, a. ; the rood, r.; the rod, rd.; the yard, yd.; the foot, fl.; and the inch, in. Gunter's chain, used by surveyors in measuring land, also in measuring distances, is 4 rods, or 66 feet, in length, and is composed of 100 links. sq. I. of 1 sq. a. 1 sq. mile 640 sq. acres. 1 sq. a. 1 sq. acre = 4 sq. l'oods. 1 1 sq. acre == 160 sq. rods. 1 sq. rd. 1 sq. rood 40 sq. rods. 1 są. rd. 1 sq. rod =304 sq. yards. 1sq yd. 2724 sq. feet. 1 sa. ft. 1 sq.yard=9 sq. feet. 1 sq. ft. 1 sq. foot 144 sq. inches. / 1 sq. in. 16 of 1 sq. a. 40 of 1 sq. r. of 1 sq. rd. 1089 of 1 sq. rd. 1 of 1 sq. ft. 4 121 4 1 sq. rod of 1 sq.yd. 1 14. 4. CUBIC MEASURE. Cubic measure is used in measuring solids and capacities, or anything that has three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness. Its denominations are, the cord, c. ; the ton, t.; the yard, yd. ; the foot, ft. ; and the inch, in. 128 c. ft. 1 cubic foot of wood. 16 c. ft. 1 cubic foot of wood. 40 c. ft. 1 cubic foot of timber. 217 c. ft. 1 cubic foot of 1 ton 40 1 cubic yard yard, 1728 с. in. / 1 cubic inch foot. 2 of 1 c. 1 cubic foot 172g of 1 c. CLOT MEASURE. This measure is used for measuring cloth, and other goods which are sold by the yard or ell. Its denominations are, the English ell, E. el}; the French ell, Fr. ell; the Flemish ell, Fl. ell; the yard, yd.; the quarter, qr.; and the nail, na. 1 English ell = 5 quarters. 11 qr. = of 1 E. ell. 1 French ell 6 quarters. 1 qr. of 1 Fr. ell. 1 Flemish ell 3 quarters. 1 qr. of 1 Fl. ell. 1 yard 4 quarters. 1 qr. of 1 yard. 1 quarter 4 nails. 1 nail of 1 quarter. DRY MEASURE. This measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, seeds, roots, salt, sand, oysters, coal, &c. Its denominations are, the chaldron, ch. ; the bushel, bu. ; the peck, pk. ; the quart, qt.; and the pint, pt. This measure is used in measuring porter, ale, beer, milk, and water. Its denominations are, the hogshead, hhd.; the barrel, bbl.; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt.; and the pint, pt. The beer gallon measures 282 cubic inches. 1 hogshead = 54 gallons. | 1 gallon =3 of 1 hhd. 1 barrel = 36 gallons. . 1 gallon 36 of 1 bbl. 1 gallon 4 quarts. 1 quart = of 1 gal. WINC MEASURE Wine measure is used in measuring wine, and all spirituous liquors, except porter, ale, and beer. Its denominations are, the tun, t.; the pipe, p. ; the hogshead, hhd. ; the barrel, bbl.; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt. ; the pint, pt; and the gill, gl. The standard gallon of the United States is the wine gallon, which measures 231 cubic inches, and contains 8.3388822 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water. The British standard imperial gallon measures 277.274 cubic inches, and contains 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water. 1 tun of 1 tun. = 2 pipes. 1 pipe 1 pipe 2 hogsheads. 1 hhd. = 1 of 1 pipe. 1 hogshead = 63 gallons. 1 gallon = of 1 hhd. of 1 bbl. 1 barrel 312 gallons. 1 gallon 1 gallon 4 quarts. 1 quart of 1 gal. 1 quart 2 pints. 1 pint 1 pint. 4 gills. 1 gill 63 of 1 qt. of 1 pt. MEASURE OF TIME. Time is the measure of duration or existence. Its denominations are, the century, c.; the year, yr. ; the month, mo. ; the week, wk. ; the day, d.; the hour, h. . the minute, m.; and the second, s. 1. century 1 year 100 years. 1 year 1 year 1 day 146T 4 1461 Tio of 1 c. it of 1 yr. 112 of 1 yr. of 1 of 1 ino. + of 1 wk yr. 1 year 1 c. mo. 1 week 1 month 1 week 1 day 1 hour 1 minute 17 days. of 1 d. 1 day 2 66 of 1 m. The year is divided into 12 calendar months, as follows: 66 28 66 31 66 66 10th so 66 31 January, ist mo., has 31 days. July, 7th mo., has 31 days. February, 20 August, March, C6 31 September, 9th " 66 30 66. April, October, May, November, 11th 56 66 30 65 June, December, 12th When any year can be divided by 4 without a remainder, it is called leap year, in which February has 29 days. 3d 66 30 66 31 66 30 66 66 66 31 CIRCULAR MWASURE. Circular measure is used in measuring circles, latitude and longitude, and in computing the revolution of the earth and other planets round the sun. Its denominations are, the circle, c. ; the sign, s.; the degree, °; the minute,'; and the second, A sheet folded in two leaves is called a folio. A sheet folded in eight leaves is called an octavo, or 8vo. A sheet folded in twelve leaves is called a duodecimo, or 12mo. A sheet folded in eighteen leaves is called an 18mo. |