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APOLOGY OF SOCRATES.
CHAP. I. & ȧvdpes 'Anvaïoi.] Socrates might also have addressed the tribunal with the words & ävdpeç dikaσraí. But the style which he has actually adopted was one which was peculiarly pleasing to the Athenian ear, and simple as it is, partook of the nature of a compliment. For 'A0nvaïos, in addition to its primary and obvious meaning, seems also to carry with it the notion of that urbanity and lettered refinement which was the characteristic of Athens. Compare what Socrates says in chapter xvii.: ὅτι, ὦ ἄριστε ἀνδρῶν, ̓Αθηναῖος ὤν, πόλεως τῆς μεγίστης καὶ εὐδοκιμωτάτης εἰς σοφίαν καὶ ἰσχύν, κ.τ.λ. And in the like spirit Cicero contrasts the native of Athens with the boor. See de Offic. I. 1, and Epist. ad Divers. XV. 19. It is worthy of remark, however, that Socrates reserves the title of duraσrai for those who showed their superiority over jealousy and party-spirit by voting for his acquittal. See chap. xxxi. The words 8,7 μὲν ὑμεῖς πεπόνθατε ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν κατηγόρων may be thus translated: How your minds have been impressed by the speeches of my accusers. For the preposition vπò after a verb neuter, see Matth. Gr. § 496.3. It may in all cases be so used when the state indicated by the verb is represented as the consequence of something said or done by another. The preposition ab is occasionally used in the same manner in Latin.
ὁ ἐγὼ δ ̓ οὖν καὶ αὐτὸς—ἐπελαθόμην] As for me, I was well nigh forgetting myself while listening to them, i.e., was ready to fancy myself other than I really am; of course said ironically. The same expression is used in Phædr. p. 228. A. ɛi ¿yw Païdpov ἀγνοῶ, καὶ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐπιλέλησμαι. Menexen. p. 235. C. μόγις ἀναμιμνήσκομαι ἐμαυτοῦ. For the ὑπὸ after a neuter verb, see the foregoing note.
cws Eπos εiπεiv] that is, So to speak: One might almost say. It refers to ovdiv ɛipýкaσiv, They have hardly uttered a word that
· αὐτῶν ἓν ἐθαύμασα] On the partitive genitive αὐτῶν, see Matth. Gr. § 317. The meaning is, "one thing in those persons;” for αὐτῶν is masculine. τῶν πολλῶν also depends on ἕν. But what astonished me above all in these persons, was the following particular one of the host of falsehoods which they told.
• ὡς χρῆν ὑμᾶς εὐλ., μὴ—ἐξαπατηθῆτε] The imperfect indicative indicates that the thing has not been as his accusers would have had it; i.e., that the insinuation has been disregarded by the dicasts. Compare Matthiæ § 505. obs. As Socrates is here putting himself in his enemies' position, and, indeed, quoting their words, we should naturally expect the optative aπarnOɛínre, rather than the subjunctive. Hence Heindorf proposes our correcting accordingly. But nothing is commoner than this transition from the direct to the indirect mode of speech; and the use of the subjunctive enables us to realise more vividly the probability which appeared to present itself to the mind of the speaker whose words are quoted. See Matth. § 518.
' ¿πεiðàv μýď dπworιouv] The particle ovv, attached to relative pronouns and adverbs, has about the force of the Latin cunque. Thus ὁποῖος is qualis; ὁποιοσοῦν, qualis cunque; ὅπως is quomodo; oπwσovν, quocunque modo. Accordingly, und OπWOTLOV will be ne minime quidem, not in the very least. A little further on occurs' the formula ei μǹ äpa, about equivalent to the Latin nisi forte, unless perchance; used ironically here, of
OU KATȧ TOUTоvs elvaι pýrwp] That is, If this be their definition of an orator, I must needs confess that, unlike them, I am an orator, seeing I speak only the truth. The very plausible conjecture of Muretus, that the où should be omitted, is, therefore, rendered entirely unnecessary. Socrates agrees with his opponents in their (assumed) theory of the duties of an orator, but not in their practice.
Η ἤ τι ἢ οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς εἰρήκασιν] That is, They have said little or nothing that is true. For the formula here used, compare Xen. Cyr. VII. 5, 45. τούτων τῶν περιεστηκότων ἤ τινα ἢ οὐδένα οἶδα, Elian de Nat. Anim. VI, 50. ἴσασιν Αἰγυπτίων ἤ τις ἢ οὐδείς. See Matth. Gr. § 487, 8. πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν must be taken in the concrete sense, the whole matter as it really stands.
κεκαλλιεπημένους γε λόγους-] Καλλιεπεῖν signifies to speak gracefully and elegantly. Accordingly, λόγοι κεκαλλιεπημένοι ῥήμασί τε καὶ ὀνόμασι are speeches composed of graceful sen
tences and elegant words. For pýμara and óvóμara differ in this, that the latter are simply nouns by themselves; the former, nouns or subjects with their predicates. Socrates further adds the expressions кɛкoσμnμévovç, i.e., embellished with all the figures of oratory.—ɛikỹ, at random, i.e., extemporaneously. The idea is more fully carried out in the words immediately subjoined, roug ÉπITνxovσiv óvóμaoi, i.e., with such words as offer themselves unsought. Fischer is undoubtedly wrong in supposing that by rà ÉTITVXÓVTA Óvóμara, Socrates meant common and trite words.
κ δίκαια εἶναι ἃ λέγω] Socrates is conscious of having right on his side, and therefore feels little anxiety about the precise words he shall make use of, or the form which his speech is to take.—Tÿde Tỹ ǹλıkíą, to an old man like me; for the abstract is here as often used for the concrete. Hence the ὥσπερ μειρακίῳ, which is immediately subjoined. Socrates was seventy years of age at the time of his trial and death. See a little farther on in this chapter. λáttε λóyovg is to frame one's words artificially, to speak like a rhetorician. Compare Demosth. de Coron. p. 268. ed. R. τί λόγους πλάττεις;—εἰς ὑμῖς εἰςιέναι is equivalent to εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον εἰςιέναι. For εἰς is not simply identical in meaning with πρός. Similarly, in Chap. XIX., we have ἀναβαίνων εiç τò πλños, i. e., ascending the bema to speak before them.
1 καὶ παρίεμαι] The verb παρίεμαι is pretty nearly synonymous with δέομαι οι παραιτοῦμαι. Literally, I bring over to myself, or try to do so: hence I beg, or entreat.
m καὶ ἐν ἀγορᾷ ἐπὶ τῶν τραπεζῶν] That is, at the bankers tables in the agora. The reading, καὶ ἐν ἀγορᾷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν Tраπεv, is manifestly incorrect; for there is no doubt that the τράπεζαι referred to were in the ἀγορά. The καὶ ἐν ἀγορᾷ is answered to by the кai äλλoɩ, which follows almost immediately afterwards. The benches of the rрaneiraι would be chiefly frequented by the wealthier citizens, to whom Socrates thus appeals for confirmation of his assertions; and the dicasts were probably most of them of this class.
п кai äλo] That is, in the workshops of artisans, in the gymnasia, etc. Compare Xen. Mem. I. 1, 10. πρwi tɛ yàp eis τοὺς περιπάτους καὶ τὰ γυμνάσια ᾔει, καὶ πληθούσης ἀγορᾶς ἐκεῖ φανερὸς ἦν, κ. τ. λ.
• μήτε θορυβεῖν] The verb θορυβεῖν is said of bustle and confusion of every kind, as when the dicasts mutter to one another, and speak loud enough to be heard. My opvßeĭte is an