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APOLOGY OF SOCRATES.
CHAP. I. a ù åvopes 'Aonvalou.] Socrates might also hare addressed the tribunal with the words ώ άνδρες δικασταί. But the style which he has actually adopted was one which was peculiarly pleasing to the Athenian ear, and simple as it is, partook of the nature of a compliment. For 'Aonvalos, in addition to its primary and obvious meaning, seems also to carry with it the notion of that urbanity and lettered refinement which was the characteristic of Athens. Compare what Socrates says in chapter xvii.: ότι, ώ άριστε ανδρών, Αθηναίος ών, πόλεως της μεγίστης και ευδοκιμωτάτης είς σοφίας και ισχύν, κ.τ.λ. And in the like spirit Cicero contrasts the native of Athens with the boor. See de Offic. I. 1, and Epist. ad Divers. XV. 19. It is worthy of remark, however, that Socrates reserves the title of dikaotai for those who showed their superiority over jealousy and party-spirit by voting for his acquittal. See chap. xxxi. The words 6,Tu μεν υμείς πεπόνθατε υπό των εμών κατηγόρων may be thus translated: How your minds have been impressed by the speeches of my accusers. For the preposition ů tò after a verb neuter, see Matth. Gr. $ 496.3. It may in all cases be so used when the state indicated by the verb is represented as the consequence of something said or done by another. The preposition ab is occasionally used in the same manner in Latin.
και εγώ δ' ούν και αυτός-επελαθόμην] As for me, I was well nigh forgetting myself while listening to them, i.e., was ready to fancy myself other than I really am; of course said ironically. The same expression is used in Phædr. p. 228. A. ei ływ Paidpov αγνοώ, και έμαυτού επιλέλησμαι. Menexen. p. 235. C. μόγις αναμιμνήσκομαι εμαυτού. For the υπό after a neuter verb, see the foregoing note.
cüs ērros elneTv] that is, So to speak: One might almost say. It refers to oudèv eiphcaoiv, They have hardly uttered a word that is true.
1 αυτών έν έθαύμασα] On the partitive genitive αυτών, see Matth. Gr. 8 317. The meaning is, “ one thing in those persons;" for avtõv is masculine. TūV Tollūv also depends on év. But what astonished me above all in these persons, was the following particular one of the host of falsehoods which they told.
* ώς χρήν υμάς ευλ., μη-εξαπατηθήτε] The imperfect indicative indicates that the thing has not been as his accusers would have had it; i.e., that the insinuation has been disregarded by the dicasts. Compare Matthiæ $ 505. obs. As Socrates is here putting himself in his enemies' position, and, indeed, quoting their words, we should naturally expect the optative étanatyOeinte, rather than the subjunctive. Hence Heindorf proposes our correcting accordingly. But nothing is commoner than this transition from the direct to the indirect mode of speech; and the use of the subjunctive enables to realise more
ividly the probability which appeared to present itself to the mind of the speaker whose words are quoted. See Matth. $ 518.
i étteldàv und on wÓTLOūv] The particle oùv, attached to rela. tive pronouns and adverbs, has about the force of the Latin cunque. Thus οποίος is qualis ; οποιοσούν, qualis cunque ; όπως is quomodo; órwooõv, quocunque modo. Accordingly, uñd' OTT WOTLOūv will be ne minime quidem, not in the very least. A little further on occurs' the formula el ur äpa, about equivalent to the Latin nisi forte, unless perchance; used ironically here, of
& oú katà toúrovç elvai pñtwp] That is, If this be their definition of an orator, I must needs confess that, unlike them, I am an orator, seeing I speak only the truth. The very plausible conjecture of Muretus, that the oủ should be omitted, is, therefore, rendered entirely unnecessary. Socrates agrees with his opponents in their (assumed) theory of the duties of an orator, but not in their practice.
ή τι ή ουδέν αληθές είρήκασιν] That is, They have said little or nothing that is true. For the formula here used, compare Χen. Cyr. VΙΙ. 5, 45. τούτων των περιεστηκότων ή τινα ή ουδένα oida. Ælian de Nat. Anim. VI, 50. ioası Aiyurtiwv tis ģ oúdeis. See Matth. Gr. $ 487, 8. mãoav try ålderav must be taken in the concrete sense, the whole matter as it really stands.
Γκεκαλλιετημένους γε λόγους- Καλλιεπεϊν εignifies to speak gracefully and elegantly. Accordingly, λόγοι κεκαλλιετημένοι ρήμασί τε και ονόμασι are speeches composed of graceful sen
tences and elegant words. For pñuara and óvóuara differ in this, that the latter are simply nouns by themselves; the former, nouns or subjects with their predicates. Socrates further adds the expressions kekogunuévovs, i.e., embellished with all the figures of oratory.-eix]], at random, i.e., extemporaneously. The idea is more fully carried out in the words immediately subjoined, tois ĚTLTUXoữoiv óvóuaơi, i.e., with such words as offer themselves unsought. Fischer is undoubtedly wrong in supposing that by tà ŠTITUxóvta óvóuara, Socrates meant common and trite words.
k δίκαια είναι α λέγω] Socrates is conscious of having right on his side, and therefore feels little anxiety about the precise words he shall make use of, or the form which his speech is to take.-Tõde võ ý lecią, to an old man like me ; for the abstract is here as often used for the concrete. Hence the őOTEP uelparių, which is immediately subjoined. Socrates was seventy years of age at the time of his trial and death. See a little farther on in this chapter. aláTTELV Xóyouç is to frame one's words artificially, to speak like a rhetorician. Compare Demosth. de Coron. p. 268. ed. R. τί λόγους πλάττεις;-είς υμάς ειςιέναι is equivalent to εις το δικαστήριον ειςιέναι. For είς is not simply identical in meaning with após. Similarly, in Chap. XIX., we have åvaßaivwv els tò años, i.e., ascending the bema to speak before them.
1 και παρίεμαι] The verb παρίεμαι is pretty nearly synonymous with δέομαι Or παραιτούμαι. Literally, I bring over to myself, or try to do so : hence I beg, or entreat.
m kai év ảyopõ étrì tūv spanešāv] That is, at the bankers' tables in the agora. The reading, και εν αγορά και επί των Tpanesūv, is manifestly incorrect; for there is no doubt that the τράπεζαι referred to were in the αγορά. The και εν αγορά is answered to by the rai ällodi, which follows almost immediately afterwards. The benches of the rpategirai would be chiefly frequented by the wealthier citizens, to whom Socrates thus appeals for confirmation of his assertions; and the dicasts were probably most of them of this class.
kai ällo01] That is, in the workshops of artisans, in the gymnasia, etc. Compare Xen. Mem. I. 1, 10. tpwi te yàp eis τους περιπάτους και τα γυμνάσια γει, και πληθούσης αγοράς εκεί φανερός ήν, κ. τ.λ.
ο μήτε θορυβεϊν] The verb θορυβείν is said of bustle and confusion of every kind, as when the dicasts mutter to one another, and speak loud enough to be heard. M» Dopußeite is an