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established formula of the orators, when they are about to say anything which may be displeasing to their auditors. See Chap. V. in two places.

Ρ έτη γεγονώς πλείω εβδομήκοντα] There is no necessity that ή should be added after πλείω. See Matth. Gr. 8 455. 4. Serranus translates “ more than sixty years old;” so that he appears to have read πλείω εξήκοντα; and we have the testimony of Laertius II. 45, that some alleged Socrates to have been put to death at the age of sixty. But see Crito, Chap. XIV.

4 ξένως έχω της ενθάδε λέξεως] On this use of the genitive see Matth. 8 337.-η ενθάδε λέξις, style of speaking customary in courts of justice.

' ώσπερ ούν άν, ει] It must not be supposed that in this and like cases, the âv is to be referred to the protasis of the sentence. It belongs to the verb in the apodosis; but by its being placed thus prominently at the beginning of the sentence, the reader is beforehand apprised of its hypothetical character. It is, however, generally repeated with the verb of the apodosis. The passage before us is, therefore, to be understood as if it were written: ώσπερ ούν αν ξυνεγιγνώσκετε δήπου μοι, ει τω όντι ξένος, κ.τ.λ. Comp. Gorg., p. 447. D. p. 479. Α. ώσπερ αν εί τις τοις μεγίστοις νοσήμασι συνισχόμενος ..... φοβούμενος, ώσπερανεί παίς, κ. τ.λ., where ώσπερανεί παις must be explained as equivalent to ώσπερ αν φοβοΐτο εί παίς είη. Similarly Xen. Cyr. Ι. 3. 1. ήσπάζετο αυτόν ώσπερ αν εί τις πάλαι συντετραμμένος ασπάζοιτο, ί.e., ώσπερ άν τις ασπάζοιτο, εί πάλαι συντεθραμμένος ασπάζοιτο.

και εν εκείνη τη φωνή-έτεθράμμην] That is, in my own mother tongue or dialect. Socrates is here referring to the δίκαι από ovußólwv, as they were called. See Dict. Antiqq. p. 1081. τούτο δίκαιον is the same as τούτο ως δίκαιόν τι, the δίκαιον being in apposition with τούτο, and not its proper substantive. See Matthiæ Gr. § 470. In the same manner in c. 5. ravti μοι δοκεί δίκαια λέγειν ο λέγων.

* αύτη αρετή] If the article is preserved, the words are to be thus connected: αύτη ή αρετή (that is, that he see whether the truth be spoken or not) δικαστού έστιν; this virtue belongs to α judge, is proper to a judge. If the article is omitted: for this is the virtue of a judge. For when the pronoun is the subject, and the substantive the predicate, the article is omitted.

II. και δίκαιος είμι απολογήσασθαι] On this construction see

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Matth. $ 296. A participle is sometimes employed in cases of this kind; see Chap. X., about the middle, karáờnloı yiyvovrai προσποιούμενοι. A little further the construction is προς τα πρώτα κατηγορημένα μου ψευδή.

b και πάλαι πολλά ήδη έτη] The words πολλά έτη are added for the purpose of determining more precisely the meaning of málai; since máhai is not always used of time long since past, but often also of a short space of time, of years, months, days, &c. The Latin dudum and jamdudum are used in the same manner. The words are to be thus connected: και πάλαι πολλά ήδη έτη λέγοντες και ουδέν αληθές λέγοντες, the sense being: For there have been many accusers of me before you, who, though they have accused me for a long time past,—now many years,-have not brought forward a word of truth.

e tous åuqi "Avutov] That is, Anytus and his associates, Meletns and Lycon. See Matth. $ 272. Anytus, in particular, is mentioned, because he was the most formidable and bitter enemy of Socrates: he had acquired great popularity by his conduct during the time of the Thirty Tyrants. For some further particulars respecting him, see Chap. X., note i.

4 αλλ' εκείνοι δεινότεροι– Socrates appears to refer to the accusations which Aristophanes and the other comic poets, as Eupolis, &c., had brought against him. See Chap. III.

€ τα τε μετέωρα φροντιστής κ. τ.λ.] φροντιστης having the same signification as opovrićwv, takes the accusative. With regard to the charge which is here positively denied, see also Aristoph. Nubes, v. 100, 189, etc. Xenophon tells us that Socrates discountenanced the pursuit of the study of astronomy, deeming it of no practical utility. “And yet,” he adds, “he was not uninformed in relation to these matters” (vairoi oudě TOÚtwv ávýkoos vv). It would seem, therefore, that he must in his earlier days have paid some attention to this and kindred subjects; and, indeed, Xenophon tells us in the same chapter (Mem. IV. 7.3), that he was possessed of a knowledge of geometry. The physical speculations in the Phædo, Chap. 58 and following, must be ascribed to Plato, and perhaps, also, the reference to Anaxagoras's lecture (ib. c. 46).

kai Tòv ÝTTW Xóyov kpeittw Tow] See Aristoph. Nubes, V.99 foll. Cicero in Brutus, c. 8. docere, quemadmodum causa inferior dicendo fieri superior possit. Gell. N. A. V. c. 3. docere, quanam verborum industria causa infirmior fiat fortior.

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8. ταύτην την φήμην κατασκεδάσαντες] Heindorf thought we ought to read: ταύτην τ. φ. κ. But there is no need of the article, since the participle is used not to define the class, but to express the reason why that class of accusers was most dangerous to Socrates. “Those persons," he says, “ because they have spread abroad that report, are formidable and dangerous accusers.

h oudè Deous vouífelv] That is, not even believe that there are gods.

i šv ý åv uádlota ércoteúgare] And these things they told you too, at the age when you were above all likely to lend an ear to them?

και ατεχνώς ερήμην κατηγ.] ερήμη (δίκη) is a cause heard in the absence of the accused, who fails to appear in court. See Dict. Antiq., p. 404. The defendant was then said eis TÌv kuplav μη οφθήναι or μη απαντήσαι. Accordingly ερήμην κατηγορείν is to an absent defendant, when he has forfeited his recognisance.

φθόνη και διαβολή χρώμενοι] That is, φθονούντες και διαβάλλοντες. A little farther on follows οι δέ, as if οι μεν had been inserted after όσοι δε.

m åtopútaroi cloi] The most impracticable, that is, such as are the hardest of all to convince and expose.

η αναβιβάσασθαι-ένταυθοϊ] αναβιβάζειν is to order any one to ascend, to produce any one, that is, on account of another, or by the order of another, or for the advantage of another. åva. Bißáčeodai is to do the same thing on one's own account, and for one's own purpose. It is therefore obvious why Plato used the middle voice. In the following words, oklapaxciv åtoloyoúMevov are in immediate connection, and form one compound idea, so that tè is correctly subjoined to them; and the corresponding clause is ελέγχειν μηδενός αποκρινομένου. In exactly the same manner, Rep. V. p. 470. C. tolepeiv uaxouévous te φήσομεν και πολεμίους φύσει είναι.

° átlóoate oův kaì ùueīs] That is, do you also then consider. The word átloūv has been ably illustrated by Buttmann, Demosth. in Midiam, p. 165.

Ρ Είεν, απολογητέον δή] In Attic Greek the word είεν 18 used to signify that the writer or speaker does not wish to say more on what has preceded, but to pass to other things. Sometimes, also, it simply indicates a transition, as in Chap. III.

? ɛdéodal thv diabolnv] That is, to remove from your minds this prejudice against me, as in Chap. X., line 9 from end. For diaboli, means prejudice, suspicion, produced by false accusations. Hesychius: Διαβολή υπόπτευσις η υπόληψις. And since Socrates, in removing this ill opinion of the judges concerning himself, consulted his own advantage, and did himself a service, it is easy to see why Plato wrote εξελέσθαι, not εξελεϊν. In the words ταύτην εν ούτως ολίγω χρόνω observe the emphasis of the sentence, which lies partly in the pronoun taúrny, partly in the opposition of the words εν πολλά χρόνω and έν ούτως ολίγω xpóvy. Compare c. X.

* τούτο ούτω γενέσθαι] The words ούτω γενέσθαι are more accurately defined by the following words: και πλέον τι με Troiñoai ároloyoúpevov, that I might do something more, that is, not only divest you of your bad opinion of me, but inspire you with a favourable one. On the formula äuelvóv ļotiv, see observations on Crito, c. XVI., note (4).

ΙΙΙ. 8 Μέλητός με εγράψατο την γραφήν ταύτην] See Euthyphro, p. 5, where is found γραφήν σε τις, ώς έoικε, γέγραπται. For it is correct to say, ypápeodai ypapív: also to say, ypápeodai Tiva: and hence, by the union of both constructions, has arisen γράφεσθαι γραφήν τινα. The accusation against Socrates was a ypapr, inasmuch as his alleged offence was not one that affected any individual in particular. A private suit is properly called δίκη.

5 ώςπερ ούν κατηγόρων-αυτών] The sense is: their indictment, like the information of accusers properly so called, ought to be recited. 'Avtwuoola is properly the oath, either of the plaintiff, when he swears that he brings the accusation for just causes and without calumny; or of the accused, when he swears that he is innocent. Further, this term is applied to the written formula of accusation, which is given in to the judge by the plaintiff: in which signification it is also found in Chap. XI.

περιεργάζεται] περιεργάζεσθαι is properly to treat any subject minutely, to bestow too much attention on anything. Hence it sig. nifies, as in this passage, to attend to those things which do not in any way belong to you ; to trouble yourself about frivolous, vain, and useless things.

εν τη 'Αριστοφάνους κωμωδία] The first edition of the Clouds appears to have been represented in the year 423 B.C. In the extant play, Socrates is represented as a foolish speculator


in celestial phenomena, who is borne about suspended in a basket, and who, when questioned by one Strepsiades as to his occupation in that elevated region, replies, αεροβατώ και περιφρονώ τον jcov. It has been too hastily concluded, that the odium excited against Socrates was to be ascribed to the impressions produced by this comedy. Twenty-four years had now elapsed since its performance, and even supposing it to have been the aim of the poet to expose the philosopher to ridicule, it was but very partially obtained; for the Clouds obtained but the third place at its first representation, and does not appear to have been any more successful at the second. Indeed, it would seem to be altogether erroneous to regard the comedy as in any sense an onslaught upon Socrates personally. The fact would seem to be, that the acquaintance which the comic poet had with the character and tenets of Socrates was superficial, and formed at second hand. Aristophanes was a man whose sympathies lay strongly with the sturdy morals and politics of the Athenians of an earlier time — “the men of Marathon," as he delighted to designate them; and he regarded the speculators in nature and ethics, whose lectures formed the great attraction of the young in his day, as the class to whose influence was mainly traceable the degeneracy of his own time. He seized, with a bold hand, upon the salient features of the teaching of these men; and, with the freedom of a popular poet, cared more for the pungency of his illustrations than for their applicability in every particular to the precise individuals whom he singled out as the scapegoats of his satire. Moreover, the intimacy which existed between Socrates and Euripides, the freedom of whose physical and theological speculations was notorious, gave Aristophanes a handle to work with, by means of which he could lend a double efficacy to his representations. It is possible that the two men learned to understand each other better in the course of time; at any rate, the subsequent plays of Aristophanes contain no further ridicule of Socrates, though, doubtless, opportunities for it would have been found or made if they had been desired.

6 ών-πέρι] Remark the preposition περί removed a good distance from its noun, The word étaielv is constructed either with a simple genitive, or with the preposition tepi and a genitive.

i cai oux ús åtipálwv-] The words are to be taken ironically in this sense: Nor do I say this with any intention of casting

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