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established formula of the orators, when they are about to say anything which may be displeasing to their auditors. See Chap. V. in two places.

· ἔτη γεγονὼς πλείω ἑβδομήκοντα] There is no necessity that ἢ should be added after πλείω. See Matth. Gr. § 455. 4. Serranus translates "more than sixty years old;" so that he appears to have read πλείω ἑξήκοντα; and we have the testimony of Laertius II. 45, that some alleged Socrates to have been put to death at the age of sixty. But see Crito, Chap. XIV.

q ξένως ἔχω τῆς ἐνθάδε λέξεως] On this use of the genitive see Matth. § 337.—ἡ ἐνθάδε λέξις, style of speaking customary in courts of justice.

· ὥσπερ οὖν ἄν, εἰ] It must not be supposed that in this and like cases, the av is to be referred to the protasis of the sentence. It belongs to the verb in the apodosis; but by its being placed thus prominently at the beginning of the sentence, the reader is beforehand apprised of its hypothetical character. It is, however, generally repeated with the verb of the apodosis. The passage before us is, therefore, to be understood as if it were written: ὥσπερ οὖν ἄν ξυνεγιγνώσκετε δήπου μοι, εἰ τῷ ὄντι ξένος, κ. τ. λ. Comp. Gorg. p. 447. D. p. 479. Α. ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τις τοῖς μεγίστοις νοσήμασι συνισχόμενος φοβούμενος, ὡσπερανεὶ παῖς, κ. τ. λ., where ώσπερανεί παὶς must be explained as equivalent to ὥσπερ ἂν φοβοῖτο εἰ παῖς εἴη. Similarly Xen. Cyr. I. 3. 1. ήσπάζετο αὐτὸν ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τις πάλαι συντεθραμ‐ μένος ἀσπάζοιτο, i.e., ὥσπερ ἄν τις ἀσπάζοιτο, εἰ πάλαι συντε θραμμένος ἀσπάζοιτο.


8 ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ φωνῇπἐτεθράμμην] That is, in my own mother tongue or dialect. Socrates is here referring to the δίκαι ἀπὸ συμβόλων, as they were called. See Dict. Antiqq. p. 1081. τοῦτο δίκαιον is the same as τοῦτο ὡς δίκαιόν τι, the δίκαιον being in apposition with τοῦτο, and not its proper substantive. See Matthiæ Gr. § 470. In the same manner in c. 5. ταυτί μοι δοκεῖ δίκαια λέγειν ὁ λέγων.

* αὕτη ἀρετή] If the article is preserved, the words are to be thus connected: αὕτη ἡ ἀρετὴ (that is, that he see whether the truth be spoken or not) δικαστοῦ ἐστιν; this virtue belongs to a judge, is proper to a judge. If the article is omitted: for this is the virtue of a judge. For when the pronoun is the subject, and the substantive the predicate, the article is omitted.

ΙΙ. * δίκαιός είμι ἀπολογήσασθαι] On this construction see

Matth. § 296. A participle is sometimes employed in cases of this kind; see Chap. X., about the middle, karáðŋλoi yiyvovтai προσποιούμενοι. A little further the construction is πρὸς τὰ πρῶτα κατηγορημένα μου ψευδή,

· καὶ πάλαι πολλὰ ἤδη ἔτη] The words πολλὰ ἔτη are added for the purpose of determining more precisely the meaning of Táλaι; since Táλaι is not always used of time long since past, but often also of a short space of time, of years, months, days, &c. The Latin dudum and jamdudum are used in the same manner. The words are to be thus connected: καὶ πάλαι πολλὰ ἤδη ἔτη λέγοντες καὶ οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς λέγοντες, the sense being: For there have been many accusers of me before you, who, though they have accused me for a long time past,- —now many years,-have not brought forward a word of truth.

• ἢ τοὺς ἀμφὶ ̓́Ανυτον] That is, Anytus and his associates, Meletus and Lycon. See Matth. § 272. Anytus, in particular, is mentioned, because he was the most formidable and bitter enemy of Socrates: he had acquired great popularity by his conduct during the time of the Thirty Tyrants. For some further particulars respecting him, see Chap. X., note i.

ὰ ἀλλ ̓ ἐκεῖνοι δεινότεροι-] Socrates appears to refer to the accusations which Aristophanes and the other comic poets, as Eupolis, &c., had brought against him. See Chap. III. ε τά τε μετέωρα φροντιστής κ. τ. λ.] φροντιστὴς having the same signification as opovríčwv, takes the accusative. With regard to the charge which is here positively denied, see also Aristoph. Nubes, vv. 100, 189, etc. Xenophon tells us that Socrates discountenanced the pursuit of the study of astronomy, deeming it of no practical utility. "And yet," he adds, "he was not uninformed in relation to these matters" (kairoi ovdè TоÚTWV ȧVÝKOοs v). It would seem, therefore, that he must in his earlier days have paid some attention to this and kindred subjects; and, indeed, Xenophon tells us in the same chapter (Mem. IV. 7. 3), that he was possessed of a knowledge of geometry. The physical speculations in the Phædo, Chap. 58 and following, must be ascribed to Plato, and perhaps, also, the reference to Anaxagoras's lecture (ib. c. 46).

· καὶ τὸν ἥττω λόγον κρείττω ποιῶ] See Aristoph. Nubes, v. 99 foll. Cicero in Brutus, c. 8. docere, quemadmodum causa inferior dicendo fieri superior possit. Gell. N. A. V. c. 3. docere, quanam verborum industria causa infirmior fiat fortior.

Β· ταύτην τὴν φήμην κατασκεδάσαντες] Heindorf thought we ought to read: oi TαÚTηV T. P. K. But there is no need of the article, since the participle is used not to define the class, but to express the reason why that class of accusers was most dangerous to Socrates. "Those persons," he says, " because they have spread abroad that report, are formidable and dangerous

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h ovde Oεous vouílav] That is, not even believe that there are gods.

1 ἐν ᾗ ἂν μάλιστα ἐπιστεύσατε] And these things they told you too, at the age when you were above all likely to lend an ear to them?

κι ἀτεχνῶς ἐρήμην κατηγ.] ἐρήμη (δίκη) is a cause heard in the absence of the accused, who fails to appear in court. See Dict. Antiq., p. 404. The defendant was then said ɛiç tǹv kupíav μὴ ὀφθῆναι οι μὴ ἀπαντῆσαι. Accordingly ἐρήμην κατηγορεῖν is to accuse an absent defendant, when he has forfeited his recognisance.

1 φθόνῳ καὶ διαβολῇ χρώμενοι] That is, φθονοῦντες καὶ διαβάλλοντες. A little farther on follows oi dé, as if oi μèv had been inserted after ὅσοι δέ.

m áπоρúταTοí εio] The most impracticable, that is, such as are the hardest of all to convince and expose.

* ἀναβιβάσασθαι—ἐνταυθοῖ] ἀναβιβάζειν is to order any one to ascend, to produce any one, that is, on account of another, or by the order of another, or for the advantage of another. ȧvaBißálεolai is to do the same thing on one's own account, and for one's own purpose. It is therefore obvious why Plato used the middle voice. In the following words, σκιαμαχεῖν ἀπολογούμɛvov are in immediate connection, and form one compound idea, so that rè is correctly subjoined to them; and the corresponding clause is ἐλέγχειν μηδενὸς ἀποκρινομένου. In exactly the same manner, Rep. V. p. 470. C. πoλεμɛîv μaxoμέvovs TE φήσομεν καὶ πολεμίους φύσει εἶναι.

• ážɩwσare ovv кaì vμɛîç] That is, do you also then consider. The word džiovv has been ably illustrated by Buttmann, Demosth. in Midiam, p. 165.

Ρ Εἶεν, ἀπολογητέον δή] In Attic Greek the word εἶεν is used to signify that the writer or speaker does not wish to say more on what has preceded, but to pass to other things. Sometimes, also, it simply indicates a transition, as in Chap. III.

¶ ¿1⁄2ɛλéolai Tǹv diaßoλýv] That is, to remove from your minds this prejudice against me, as in Chap. X., line 9 from end. For diaßolj means prejudice, suspicion, produced by false accusations. Hesychius: Διαβολή· ὑπόπτευσις ἢ ὑπόληψις. And since Socrates, in removing this ill opinion of the judges concerning himself, consulted his own advantage, and did himself a service, it is easy to see why Plato wrote ἐξελέσθαι, not ἐξελεῖν. In the words ταύτην ἐν οὕτως ὀλίγῳ χρόνῳ observe the emphasis of the sentence, which lies partly in the pronoun raúrηv, partly in the opposition of the words ἐν πολλῷ χρόνῳ and ἐν οὕτως ὀλίγῳ Xpóvy. Compare c. X.

* τοῦτο οὕτω γενέσθαι] The words οὕτω γενέσθαι are more accurately defined by the following words: καὶ πλέον τί με πoiñσai áπoλoyoúμɛvov, that I might do something more, that is, not only divest you of your bad opinion of me, but inspire you with a favourable one. On the formula άμεινόν ἐστιν, see observations on Crito, c. XVI., note (d).


ΙΙΙ. * Μέλητός με ἐγράψατο τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην] See Euthyphro, p. 5, where is found γραφήν σέ τις, ὡς ἔοικε, γέγραπται. For it is correct to say, γράφεσθαι γραφήν: also to say, γράφεσθαί Tiva: and hence, by the union of both constructions, has arisen γράφεσθαι γραφήν τινα. The accusation against Socrates was a ypaon, inasmuch as his alleged offence was not one that affected any individual in particular. A private suit is properly called δίκη.

Ο ὥςπερ οὖν κατηγόρων-αὐτῶν] The sense is: their indictment, like the information of accusers properly so called, ought to be recited. 'Avrwμooía is properly the oath, either of the plaintiff, when he swears that he brings the accusation for just causes and without calumny; or of the accused, when he swears that he is innocent. Further, this term is applied to the written formula of accusation, which is given in to the judge by the plaintiff: in which signification it is also found in Chap. XI.


περιεργάζεται] περιεργάζεσθαι is properly to treat any subject minutely, to bestow too much attention on anything. Hence it signifies, as in this passage, to attend to those things which do not in any way belong to you; to trouble yourself about frivolous, vain, and useless things.

ὰ ἐν τῇ ̓Αριστοφάνους κωμῳδία] The first edition of the Clouds appears to have been represented in the year 423 B.C. In the extant play, Socrates is represented as a foolish speculator

in celestial phenomena, who is borne about suspended in a basket, and who, when questioned by one Strepsiades as to his occupation in that elevated region, replies, ἀεροβατῶ καὶ περιφρονῶ τὸν Mov. It has been too hastily concluded, that the odium excited against Socrates was to be ascribed to the impressions produced by this comedy. Twenty-four years had now elapsed since its performance, and even supposing it to have been the aim of the poet to expose the philosopher to ridicule, it was but very partially obtained; for the Clouds obtained but the third place at its first representation, and does not appear to have been any more successful at the second. Indeed, it would seem to be altogether erroneous to regard the comedy as in any sense an onslaught upon Socrates personally. The fact would seem to be, that the acquaintance which the comic poet had with the character and tenets of Socrates was superficial, and formed at second hand. Aristophanes was a man whose sympathies lay strongly with the sturdy morals and politics of the Athenians of an earlier time-"the men of Marathon," as he delighted to designate them; and he regarded the speculators in nature and ethics, whose lectures formed the great attraction of the young in his day, as the class to whose influence was mainly traceable the degeneracy of his own time. He seized, with a bold hand, upon the salient features of the teaching of these men; and, with the freedom of a popular poet, cared more for the pungency of his illustrations than for their applicability in every particular to the precise individuals whom he singled out as the scapegoats of his satire. Moreover, the intimacy which existed between Socrates and Euripides, the freedom of whose physical and theological speculations was notorious, gave Aristophanes a handle to work with, by means of which he could lend a double efficacy to his representations. It is possible that the two men learned to understand each other better in the course of time; at any rate, the subsequent plays of Aristophanes contain no further ridicule of Socrates, though, doubtless, opportunities for it would have been found or made if they had been desired.

ε ὧν πέρι] Remark the preposition περὶ removed a good distance from its noun. The word Tatav is constructed either with a simple genitive, or with the preposition Tepi and a genitive.

1 Kai ovx wc ȧτipákov-] The words are to be taken ironically in this sense: Nor do I say this with any intention of casting

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