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is not by any means inconsistent with the usage of Greek writers to add tõv älwv åpxwv. Compare, for instance, Gorg. p. 473. C. υπό των πολιτών, και των άλλων ξένων, 1. e., by citizens, and others who were strangers; or, by citizens, and, moreover, by strangers. It would be easy to multiply examples, but the above is sufficient. We may translate: caring nothing for what the multitude care most for-money making, household affairs, military command, rhetorical celebrity, and, in addition to these things, public offices, conspiracies, and the cabals that are constantly arising in the state. Fischer, therefore, is wrong in defending the other reading onploupyiūv, especially since he has by no means proved that dńuapxou were also called at Athens by the name ònulovpyoi.—The factions and seditions, which arose after the Peloponnesian war throughout all Greece, and particularly at Athens, are well known.—'ETLELTS is frequently oppos paŭlos, and signifies good, liberal, just.

ενταύθα μεν ουκ ρα] Remark this use of ενταύθα, which occurs again, a few lines below, in évtaūda ja. This mode of expression is exactly the reverse of that which has been spoken of in c. XXII. note (d). For in the same manner as it was shown there, that verbs signifying rest are joined with adverbs of motion to a place, the two ideas of rest and motion being united in a single proposition: so, conversely, verbs indicating motion are added to adverbs which properly signify rest, and not motion. It serves to illustrate the activity of the Greek mind, which often led a speaker or writer to unite many different notions in the same member of a sentence.

1 επί δε το ιδία έκαστον ιών ήα] This redundancy is remarkable. It is evident that the participle iwv might have been omitted. Probably the influence of the foregoing towy led to its introduction.

8 oőtw katà ròv aŭròv tpónov] These words, also, are put ĚK zapalinov. The recurrence of such redundancies as this serves to prove that the compactness and compression which characterise the best Greek authors, was not the result of a conscious effort to avoid wordiness and circumlocution, but the natural consequence of their manner of thinking. Similar examples have been collected by Astius ad Legg. p. 24.

h ανδρί πένητι ευεργέτη] A person who had deserved well of the state was honoured with the name evepyérns. Dorvill on Chariton, p. 317. ed. Lips. says: “Great men, nay, even kings,

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sought as a distinguished honour ευεργέτας του δήμου γραφήναι of Athens.” See Suidas, under στήλη. Αncient inscriptions supply many examples.

μάλλον πρέπει ούτως, ώς- The ordinary mode of expression would have been either ό,τι μάλλον πρέπει ή, or ό,τι πρέπει ούτως ώς. Uniting these constructions, he gives us μάλλον ούτως ώς, κ.τ.λ. So C. XVII., μήτε σωμάτων επιμελεϊσθαι μήτε χρημάτων πρότερον ούτω σφόδρα, ως της ψυχής. See, also, Rep. VΙΙ. p. 526. C. και μήν, ως εγώμαι, ά γε μείζω πόνον παρέχει μανθάνοντι και μελετώντι, ουκ αν ραδίως ουδε πολλά αν εύροις, ως τούτο, Min. p. 318. Ε. ου γάρ έσθ' και τι τούτου ασεβέστερόν έστιν, ουδ' ούτω χρή μάλλον ευλαβείσθαι, πλήν εις θεούς και λόγω και έργω εξαμαρτάνειν. Eryx. p. 392. C. υπό δε των σμικρών τούτων αν μάλλον οργίζουντο ούτως, ως αν μάλιστα χαλεπώτατοι είησαν.

και εν πρυτανείω σιτείσθαι] The Prytaneum was a place in the citadel where the laws of Solon were kept, see Pausan. I. 18.: and where a daily allowance of provisions was given to citizens who had deserved well of the republic. A public maintenance in the Prytaneum, εν πρυτανείω σιτείσθαι, was accounted a high honour. See Cic. Orat. I. 54. Demosthen. de falsâ leg. p. 231. -"Ιππος is the same as κέλης, a race-horse, mounted by a single rider. Ξυνωρίς is a chariot with two horses, and ζεύγος one with three or four horses. νενίκηκεν Ολύμπια is used indifferently with 'Ολυμπιάσι νενίκηκεν, and is analogous to such expressions as μάχην μάχεσθαι, and the like. So Ennius ap. Cic. de Senectute has

Sicut fortis equus, spatio qui sæpe supremo

Vicit Olympia, etc. (Chap. VI.) ΧΧVΙΙ. 8 ώςπερ περί τού οίκτου και της αντιβολήσεως] He refers to his saying, in c. XXIII., that he would not follow the example of other accused persons, who tried to move the pity (oiktos) of the judges, and that he would not, as a suppliant, implore the mercy of his judges. This is the αντιβόλησις or αντιβολία which he speaks of. For as αντιβολεϊν is the same as εκετεύειν, ο αντιβόλησις is the same as ικετεία.

b εκών είναι] That is, as far as my will has been concerned. Ας έκών είναι implies an exception, it will naturally be found chiefly, if not exclusively, in negative propositions, whilst ÉKWV alone is generally found with affirmative ones.

ολίγον γάρ χρόνονεί ήν υμίν νόμος, κ. τ.λ.] There is here


an evident reference to the caution and tardiness with which the Spartans proceeded in any case which affected the life of a citizen. See Thucyd. I. 132.

d äçiós šiui Tov kakoû] So after Koebler, Heindorf, and Bekker we have corrected the common reading άξ. είμι του κακού. Α correction which is proved to be necessary by the words in c. ΧΧVΙΙΙ. ουκ είθισμαι εμαυτόν αξιoύν κακού ουδενός. The indefinite pronoun rıç is occasionally put before the word which it agrees with. Theocrit. Idyll. Ι. 32. έντοσθεν δε γυνά, τι θεών δαίδαλμα, τέτυκται.

τί δείσας ; ή μη πάθω The manuscripts read τι δείσας,

un táow, through fear of what? or is it that I may experience the fate at which Meletus estimates my offence, and which I confess myself ignorant, whether it be a good or an evil ?' The sense thus obtained is quite in keeping with the drift of the argument, and we may, therefore, question the propriety of Stallbaum's reading (after Heindorf) n. It seems more natural to carry the sense on, without making two distinct interrogations. Nor is there any need for interpreting the reading of the MSS., as he says it must be interpreted if retained, τί άλλο δείσας ή μη πάθω.-ού Μέλητός μοι τιμάται. Remark the construction of the verb τιμάσθαι with a dative, as in c. XXVI. and c. XXVIII., where he says of the judges: tocourov Boúleoté pol riuñoal. It is a dativus commodi. The active is always said of the judges, the middle of the accuser and accused, in accordance with the nature of the middle voice; for neither the accuser nor the accused have the power to impose the penalty, but merely to get it imposed. An example in point occurs a few lines farther on in this chapter: αλλά δή φυγής τιμήσομαι; ίσως γάρ άν μοι τούτου τιμήσαιτε.

1 έλωμαι ων εύ οίδ' ότι κακών όντων] The regular construction would be, either έλωμαι τι τούτων & εύ οίδα ότι κακά εστιν, or έλωμαι τι τών, εν οίδα, κακών όντων. Both constructions are here combined. In a similar manner Gorg. p. 481. D. alobávoval ούν σου εκάστοτε καίπερ όντος δεινού, ότι, οπόσ' άν φή σου τα παιδικά και όπως αν φή έχειν, ου δυναμένου αντιλέγειν, άλλ' άνω και κάτω μεταβαλλομένου, where see Heindorf.

6 rois évõeka ;] The Eleven were magistrates, to whom persons condemned by public trial were delivered for punishment. Some have regarded these words as a gloss, and recommended their omission; an opinion embraced by Heindorf, Schleiermacher, and Bekker. But they may very well be retained, as exhibiting


more emphatically the disagreeable and odious condition on which he would then hold his life.

h και δεδέσθαι έως αν εκτίσω;] Δεδέσθαι, to be in the public prison. This passage alone is sufficient to show that persons who were fined were imprisoned until the fine was paid. Compare Demosth. c. Timocr. p. 721. 1. àv ápyvpiov reunon dedkolai éWS àv ťktion. Adv. Mid. p. 529. 26. See the commentators on Nep. Miltiad. 7., and also Cimon. 1.

1 ει ούτως αλόγιστός είμι] On this use of the indicative see c. XII. note (n).—A little further on Enteī is to wish, to desire.

k älloi äpa] On this expression see c. XXIII. note (C). These words do not depend on the preceding ori, but the sentence begins anew; or, rather, loyibotai, in positive sense, must be mentally supplied from the μη δύνασθαι λογίζεσθαι above. Compare c. XXVI. note (d). Ο καλός ούν άν μοι ο βίος είη-ζήν] This is said ironically.

ó The verb εξέρχεσθαι, not φεύγειν, is said of going into exile, as has been well observed by Fischer.-άλλην έξ άλλης πόλιν πόλεως ápeißeodai is to change, or go, from one state to another to take up his residence.—The infinitive Sñv is added per epexegesin to the preceding words, καλός-ο βίος είη, to give additional force to the expression; a usage which is frequent after demonstrative pronouns. Compare Matth. $ 535. y. and § 468.

m kâv mèv ráneaúvw] That is, do not admit them to hear my discourses.—On the Attic future želőoi, see Buttm. § 86.

ΧΧVΙΙΙ. 4 τυγχάνει μέγιστον αγαθόν όν] The old reading was simply tvyxável without the ov, but the participle is found in the best MSS., and has been restored accordingly. It has been a matter of controversy whether tvyxávely can be used absolutely in the sense of to be; but Heindorf, Matthiæ, and others seem to have established the affirmative side of the question. Compare Hipp. Maj. p. 299, near the end. oudé y ý diåkons ηδονή, ότι δι' ακοής έστι, διά ταύτα τυγχάνει καλή. Soph. Elect. 313. võv däypoiol tuyxável sc. őv. Nor would it be difficult to multiply examples. For the opposite view, see Porson's Hecuba, v. 782.

bo δε ανεξέταστος - ανθρώπω] This is not an independent sentence, introduced by way of parenthesis, as some have thought, The words are under the government of the foregoing ori, The particle δε in ταύτα δ' έτι ήττον πείσεσθέ μοι λέγοντι, serves to bring out the apodosis with greater force. Moreover, it refers us


back to the foregoing oύ πείσεσθέ μοι ως ειρωνευομένω. The emphasis of this use of dè in the apodosis of a sentence doubtless lies in its suggesting to us an alternative, which, if not expressed, is at least implied. Its use is, then, analogous to that of the Latin vero in such phrases as tum vero.

νύν δέ-ου γάρ έστιν] After νύν δε, or, rather, after ου γάρ έστιν, we must understand ου δύναμαι τιμήσασθαι χρημάτων, or simply τιμώμαι χρημάτων; the declaration receiving its correction from what follows, ei un äpa ooov, 6. 7.d. Socrates begins the sentence as if he intended its form to be something as follows: ‘But in the present case, as I have no money, I am unable to assess myself in that way'; but being led to correct and modify his statement, that he had no money to pay, he is under the necessity of attaching a different termination to the sentence from that which he had intended. The τοσούτου ούν τιμώμαι is the representative of the τιμώμαι χρημάτων, which is thus displaced.

4 αυτοί δ' εγγυάσθαι] Understand paoi, which is contained in the preceding word kɛlɛvovoi. It not unfrequently happens that we have thus to abstract from a word of precise and definite signification, occurring in one part of a sentence, the more general meaning which alone is applicable to some other part of the same sentence. This is the principle of what the grammarians call zeugma. On åčlóxpews, see c. V. note (').

ΧΧΙΧ. Ου πολλού γ' ενέκα χρόνου] The remainder of the Apology was delivered after the judges had, by their second vote, passed sentence of death upon Socrates. The bold and uncompromising tone which he had adopted in the second portion of his address, especially his declaration that he considered himself worthy of a public maintenance in the Prytaneum, had exasperated his enemies; and the majority against him was, according to Diogenes, greater by eighty votes than on the preceding question. The same features which characterise the foregoing portions of the defence are exhibited, in this closing section, in a manner even more striking. There is a pathos, too, about the words, in which the venerable old man takes his leave of his judges, which has found enthusiastic admirers in all ages:-I will say no more: it is already time for us to be going - for me to die, for you to live; and which of the two is the better issue is a secret to all but God.' ου πολλού γ' ενέκα χρόνου, i. e. for the sake of no long period of time. The last few

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