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πάντα συντήκουσα δακρύους χρόνον. Ιbid. 1096. τρυχομένους τον πάντα χρόνον. .
1 Μίνως τε και Ραδάμανθυς, κ. τ.λ.] These words are placed in apposition with the relative pronoun; whereas the first part of the sentence would lead us to expect the accusative. So Phædo, p. 66. Ε, και τότε – ημίν έσται ου επιθυμούμεν, -φρονήσεως. Hipp. Maj. p. 281. C. τί ποτε το αίτιον, ότι οι παλαιοί εκείνοι, ών ονόματα μεγάλα λέγεται επί σοφία, Πιττακού τε και Βίαντος, - φαίνονται απεχόμενοι των πολιτικών πράξεων. These apparent irregularities are due to the principle of attraction, which exercises so strong an influence in the structure of a Greek sentence. It would be easy to multiply examples; but those who are anxious to see a greater number, may refer to Wolf on Demosth. Lept. § 15, or Heindorf on Hippias Maj. § 2. By a similar construction, Sulpicius in Cic. ad. Diversos, IV. 5, writes: genus hoc consolationis miserum est, quia, per quos ea confieri debet, propinquos ac familiares, ipsi pari molestia afficiuntur.Respecting the judges of the infernal regions, and their duties, there is a remarkable passage in Gorg. p. 523. E. sqq. It appears to have been the opinion of the common people in Attica, probably derived, by rumour, from the Eleusinian mysteries, that Triptolemus, and other heroes who had lived a just and pious life, became judges in the infernal regions. For Triptolemus was said not only to have taught the Athenians agriculture, but also to have given them laws, whence he was called Dequopópos. The following words, και άλλοι, όσοι κ.τ.λ, seem to refer to the prevalent notion, that the dead would practise in the shades what had been their occupations in the upper world.
και επί πόσω άν τις δέξαιτ' άν υμών] Cicero renders: quanti tandem æstimatis ? Xenoph. Mem. II. 2, 8. allà vì Aia Néyel, & ουκ άν τις επί τω βίω παντί βούλοιτο είναι. Compare Μatth. $ 585. B.
εγώ μεν γαρ πολλάκις εθέλω τεθνάναι] On this use of the verb tedvávai see c. XVII. note (2). Eusebius has: éyw pèy kai πολλάκις: whence Heindorf conjectured that Ρlato wrote: εγώ uèv ydp kaì molláris, etc. But there is no need of change. The word ydp sometimes introduces the real reason for a preceding or following statement; but, very frequently, indeed, refers to a statement or sentiment, to which the train of thought leads so spontaneously as to render it unnecessary to do more than thus intimate it; and sometimes, like the Latin enim, seems to
mean simply, indeed, at any rate, according to its etymology,
ή διατριβή αυτόθι] That is, “As far as I myself am concerned, the intercourse there would be delightful; to meet with Palamedes and Ajax, the son of Telamon, and any of the rest of the ancients, who, through an unjust sentence, were put to death : to compare their sufferings with my own would, I conceive, be no unpleasant occupation.'-αντιπαραβάλλοντι is, in point of sense, equivalent to αντιπαραβάλλειν. The stories of Palamedes and Ajax are well known. See, for the former, Virg. Æn. II. 81, and Ovid. Met. XIII. 55; for the latter, Hom. Od. XI. 545.
η και δη το μέγιστον] The expression το μέγιστον is placed in apposition with the whole of the following clause. See Matth. § 432.5.
ο τον επί Τροίαν αγαγόντα] That is, Agamemnon.
P ή άλλους μυρίους άν τις είπoι] Stephens would read ή άλλους μυρίους, ούς άν τις είπoι, not bearing in mind that brevity by which several sentences are sometimes united in one clause. See Gorg. p. 483. D. 'πει ποίο δικαίω χρώμενος Ξέρξης επί την Ελλάδα έστράτευσεν; ή ο πατήρ αυτού επί τούς Σκύθας; ή άλλα μυρία άν τις έχοι τοιαύτα λέγειν. Phedo, p. 94. Β. λέγω δε το τοιόνδε, ώς εί καύματος ενόντος και δίψους επί τουναντίον έλκειν, επί το μή πίνειν και πείνης ενούσης επί το μη εσθίειν. και άλλα μυρία που δρώμεν έναντιουμένην την ψυχήν τοις κατά
9 αμήχανον αν είη ευδαιμονίας] Similarly Theaetet. p. 175. Α. άτοπα αυτό καταφαινεται της σμικρολογίας, monstrous degree of stupidity. The genitive is a partitive one.
ΧΧΧΙΙΙ. 4 'Aλλά και υμάς χρή] Cicero: VOs, judices, qui me absolvistis. Socrates will not recognise as judges those who condemned him. Compare c. XXXI.
b και έν τι τούτο διανοείσθαι αληθές] The circumstance that Ti is used here before toŨTO arises from the usage of the Greeks, first to express what they mean generally by the pronoun ti, and then to limit or define the meaning more accurately. So we should say, one particular thing, namely this, is to be regarded as true.-από τού αυτομάτου: that is, by chance, fortuitously, not by the design and will of the gods.-απηλλ. πραγμάτων, that is, human affairs, with the accessory notion of labour and toil.-oů πάνυ χαλ., not much; not greatly. Others have incorrectly translated it by no means, a signification which the words no where
have.-A little further on, Heindorf suggests that the reading ought to be: τούθ' ο αυτοϊς άξιον μέμφεσθαι. But the language is more serious and emphatic as it stands.
c taúrà raðra AUTOŪVTES] That is, giving them just the same annoyance which I have done you ; to wit, exhorting them to virtue, making trial of their wisdom, convincing them of folly.—Elvai ti K. 7. d., that is, If they think themselves to be something when they are nothing, reproach them, as I have done you, etc.
d'Allà vàp-] Cicero Tusc. I. 41. Sed tempus est jam hinc abire, me, ut moriar; vos, ut vitam agatis. Utrum autem sit melius, dii immortales sciunt: hominem quidem scire arbitror neminem. See c. XXIX. note (a).
NOTES ON THE CRITO.
Crito.] Crito, whose name is honoured by standing at the head of this dialogue, was a wealthy and generous Athenian. He wrote a considerable number of treatises in the dialogue form, but it is to his faithful and self-sacrificing attachment to his friend and master that he owes by far the greater part of his fame. His sons were also pupils of Socrates
I. a IInvíka pálcota ;] What hour is it as near as you can tell ? The interrogative anvika is correctly used, not of time in general, but of the subdivisions of the day. See Thom. M. p. 713, ed. Bern. - πηνίκα μή είπης επί χρόνου. έστι γαρ ώρας δηλωτικόν οίον εάν είπης έωθεν ή περί μεσημβρίαν. The adverb μάλιστα is frequently used with numerals and similar words, to indicate that nothing more than an approximation, as near as possible however to the exact truth, is intended.
öpOpos Badús.] Crito defines the time more accurately in these words, for opçõ and oppos differ from one another, as in Latin mane and diluculum, of which the former is the part of the day extending from twilight to about the third hour, according to the antient division of the day; but the latter is the twilight itself, when
Nox abiit, nec tamen orta dies, according to Ovid. Amat. I. 5, 6. Phrynichus: õp pos tò apò άρχομένης ημέρας, εν ώ έτι λύχνω δύναται τις χρήσθαι. The adjective Balús is used by the Greeks in reference to time as the word “ depth” is used in the phrase "the depth of winter.” Protagor. p. 310. Α. της παρελθούσης νυκτός ταυτησί, έτι όρθρου Badéos. Lucian. Asin. 34. vúš Baleia, where see Reitz. Polyæn. Strateg. Ι. 28, 2, βαθείας εσπέρας.
• θαυμάζω, όπως ήθέλ.- I wonder how it came to pass that. Compare Χenoph. Mem. Ι. 1, 20. θαυμάζω ούν, όπως ποτέ επείσθησαν οι Αθηναίοι. Εurip. Med. ν. 51. πώς λείπεσθαι θέλει; So a little further on : πώς ουκ επήγειράς με ευθύς; Socrates