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wonders that Crito was admitted so soon by the jailor, because it was not yet the legitimate time for opening the doors: où návv πρη άνεώγετο. Phaedo c. III. —Yrakoúelv indicates the answering of a knock by the janitor.

4 και τι και ευεργέτηται] The reading και του και, αnd in truth also, which some have preferred, appears inconsistent with the modesty of Crito, who does not wish to boast of benefits conferred on the man, but merely to state the cause of his being admitted. Delicacy of feeling would lead him rather to depreciate the sacrifices he had made in order to secure a ready admission to his friend's cell. And the reading, we have admitted, is sanctioned by some of the best MSS. The ti is to be taken in connexion with evepyérntai: he has received a trifle from me : see Matth. $ 415. Nor is there anything unusual in its being separated from the verb by the intervening conjunction. Buttmann and others prefer the present imperfect stepyeteiras, as indicating that Crito regularly gave the doorkeeper a gratuity on paying his visits to the prison. But the present perfect evepyérntal is even more expressive, as it indicates that the remembrance of his favours in time past, still survived in the man's mind; without at all precluding the notion of their being repeated from time to time. No universal rule can be laid down for the augment of verbs like evepyetéw. See Matth. $ 169, and compare ib. 167, note 6.

e 'ET LELKŪS náhai] That is, pretty long since, or, a good while ago. So Theaet. near the beginning, "Apti, ü Tepfiwv, ñ tálai εξ αγρού, επιεικώς πάλαι. Phaedo, p. 80. C. επιεικώς συχνόν επιμένει χρόνον. Grammarians interpret επιεικώς, when s0 placed, by návu, diav. See Eustath. on Il. á, p. 547. Hesych. under the word.—Immediately afterwards, the interrogative eira indicates wonder and annoyance. See Apolog. Socr. c. XVI.

I ovo âv avròs noslov-] I should not myself have liked to have been at once so sleepless and so sad ; literally, to have been in such wakefulness and sorrow. The particle äv used with the imperfect indicates the supposition of a case contrary to that which in reality exists. For εν τοσαύτη τε άγρυπνία και λύπη the ordinary construction would be εν τοσαύτη αγρυπνία τε και Xúmy, which is found in some MSS. But the other reading is explained by understanding todaúry again after kaí. For me is put immediately after togaúry to show that that word belongs to λύπη as well as to αγρύπνια.


cause see

8 ώς ήδέως κ.] Emphatically, for ότι ούτως ήδέως κ. For in expressions of this kind the word úg retains something of that force which it has when enunciated as an exclamation. Comp. Xen. Cyr., where the young Cyrus says of Astyages, wg kalóg μοι ο πάππος! So a little further on: ώς ραδίως αυτήν και πράως φέρεις. Phaedo, p. 58. E. ευδαίμων μοι ο ανήρ εφαίνετο ώς αδεώς και γενναίως ετελεύτα. Ιbid. p. 89. A. ώς ήδέως και úpevūç TÌv óyov å redéfato. Compare Matth. $ 489. 3.

Η ίνα ώς ήδιστα διάγης] The Greeks use the subjunctive mood after conjunctions indicating the final cause, even when a past tense has gone before, if the apodosis describes a state which is contemplated as still abiding, as is here the case. Crito intimates that not merely was it his purpose to secure his friend as much enjoyment of life as possible, but that it is so still. Compare Matth. $ 518. 1. With διάγης we must understand τον Biov, a very customary ellipsis.

1 ευδαιμόνισα του τρόπου] On this genitive Matth. § 368. — Tpórog here means the mode of thinking and acting exhibited in a man's life,-his disposition. Phædo, p. 58. E. ευδαίμων εφαίνετο του τρόπου. Xenophon likewise bears testimony to the calm equanimity of his master: Memor. IV. 8. 3. εθαυμάζετο επί τη ευθύμως και ευκόλως ζήν. - τηλικούτον όντα, i.e. for me at my time of life, for it is better to understand the indefinite subject, than the definite εμέ. χρή δέ-ταύτα αιρείσθαι φάσκοντά γε δή, κ. τ.λ. To make the sentiment more emphatic, he expresses it in general terms: "it were absurd that a man of such an age should be unwilling to die.” Socrates was now seventy. See c. XIV.

και εν τοιαύταις ξυμφοραίς αλίσκονται] i.e. are overtaken with like calamities. It would be easy to multiply examples of this use of źv. Compare Phileb. p. 45. C. év tolOÚTois voonuaoiv εχόμενοι. Rep. ΙΙΙ. p. 395. D. έν ξυμφοραίς τε και πένθεση και θρήνοις εχομένην. The reading αυτούς seems preferable to aŭtois, resting as it does on the authority of the better manuscripts. If, however, we read aútoīs, it must be understood as a dațivus commodi, after the general idea śmitetai un o'xà åyavakreiv; the un oúxi being, as often is the case, redundant in point of logic. Stallbaum seems to travel rather far for his solution of the difficulty presented by the latter reading:

“ Vulgatum defendi potest,” he writes, “ siquidem ésidúsobai proprie est alicui aliquid liberum præstare ideoque concedere:" i.e. he


would interpret, their old age by no means vouchsafes to them an exemption from grief, etc. The whole sentence we may render as follows: Others beside you, Socrates, are overtaken at your time of life by the like calamities, and yet their age has not the effect of suving them from distress at the misfortune which has come upon them.

The το μή ούχί αγανακτείν is an accusative of reference: as Stallbaum renders, “ quod attinet ad illud,” and the formula tò un is often as here tantamount to the Latin quominus : “non liberat eos quominus indignutnur.We subjoin a few similar examples. Eur. Hippol. v. 48.

το γάρ της δ' ου προτιμήσω κακόν το μή ου παρασχεϊν τους έμούς εχθρούς έμοί

δίκην τοσαύτην Where some MSS. have toū un oủ. Prom. V. 243.

εξερυσάμην βροτους του μή διαρραισθέντας εις "Αιδου μολεϊν. Where some MSS. have το μή. Plato, Rep. ΙΙΙ. p. 354. Β. ουκ απεσχόμην το μή ουκ επί τούτο ελθείν απ' εκείνου.

1 αλλά τί δή - That is, but, to return to the former subject, pray, why, etc.

η ού σοί, ώς έμοί φαίνεται] There is much beauty in these words. 'I am come, he says, ' to bring tidings which I know perfectly well will not be painful to you, but which to myself and all your friends are painful and distressing, and which, methinks, I shall feel the most deeply of all.

2 εν τοίς βαρύτατα] That is, εν τοίς βαρέως φέρουσιν εγώ βαρύτατα αν ενέγκ. See Matth. 8 289.

ο Τίνα ταύτην;] Understand φέρεις, ι. ε. τις έστιν αύτη ή αγγελία, ήν φέρεις. See Matth. 8 264. So Euthyphro, p. 14, D. τίς ή ωφέλεια τους θεούς τυγχάνει ούσα από των δώρων; In such sentences the article or demonstrative pronoun indicates that mention has before been made of the thing spoken of.

P ή το πλοίον αφίκται] Schleiermacher translates, Ist etwa das Schiff aus Delos zurückgekommen? 'Is the ship, perchance, come back from Delos?' But the particle î, like the Latin an, can only be used as an interrogative when another alternative is implied, though suppressed. Here we may supply, ‘or, is my question needless, and is it that the ship, etc., i, e. But why do I ask, etc. Compare c. XXVII. note (C). - On the use of the in

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fipitive reovával, where årolvýokalv might be expected, see Apolog. Socrat. c. XVII. note (2).—The Athenians, in gratitude for Apollo's sending Theseus and his companions back in safety from Crete, sent annually a public embassy to Delos, to offer sacrifice to Apollo, and ceiebrate his praises in hymns. These ambassadors were called θεωροί, or θεωρία, probably from the verb ώρείν, i. e. φροντίζειν, θεραπεύειν, and the noun θεός, i. e. Apollo. From the time when the sacred ship was decorated with the laurel wreath, until its return, it was unlawful to inflict punishment on condemned criminals. See Xenoph. Mem. IV. 8, 2. Since the ship was adorned with the laurel wreath the day before the condemnation of Socrates, and returned thirty days after, Socrates must have been thirty days in prison after his condemnation, See the commencement of the Phædo, with the passage of Xenophon referred to above.

9 αλλά δοκεί μέν μοι ήξειν] After the verbs oίμαι, δοκεϊ, and others, uév is often placed without being answered by de. But when this is the case, there is yet always some clause or sentence of contrast implied, which the reader mentally supplies for himself. In the present case, however, some doubts exist as to the precise manner in which the thought is to be completed. Most interpreters understand some such clause as σαφώς δ' ουκ οίδα. But since Crito says afterwards: δήλον ούν εκ τούτων των αγγέλων, ότι ήξει τήμερον, it would seem that something different is required by the sense, and even that the words doket μέν μοι ήξειν τήμερον are used with the delicacy of Attic speech to signify ήξει τήμερον, a use of the verb δοκείν very common among the Socratic speakers. In the same manner Phædo, p. 61. C. we read, άπειμι δε, ως έoικε, τήμερον. This being the case, we are disposed to think that the sentence to which uèv refers us is contained in the preceding words oύ τοι δή αφίκται, so that it might have been written thus: alolov nel Mèv τήμερον, ού τοι δε αφίκται.-It has been thought desirable to give Stallbaum's valuable note entire, but there seems reason to doubt the correctness of his explanation. It is not easy to believe that Mèv can refer us back to a sentence already enunciated; and the passage is quite capable of explanation without any such hypothesis. It must be remembered that uèv can as well take after it a sentence of co-ordination or of climax as one of contrast and opposition, and may be followed by other particles than dé. (See Matth. $ 622, and Liddel and Scott's Lexicon, under uév.) And in the present case the complement of the idea would seem to be και δήλον ότι ούτως έσται, εξ ών απαγγέλλουσιν: Τhis,' he would say, “is not merely my opinion, but, from the reports which have been brought, it is clear that such will be the case.'-Immediately afterwards εξ ών απαγγέλλουσιν is the same as εκ τούτων å åtayyéMlovor: from the reports which have been brought. So Cicer. Epist XVI. 22. ex tuis epistolis. – Loúvlov, a promontory of Attica, situated in that part which faces the Cyclades and the Ægæan Sea.

II. a túxy ảyal] A well known form used by the Greeks as a good omen, when they themselves or others were undertaking anything. It answers to the Latin quod bene vertat, quod felix faustumque sit. See Sympos. p. 177. E. Thucyd. IV. 118. Socrates, hearing that he must die, is so far from fearing death that he even considers it to be an object to be sought for as a blessing.

b ή ή αν έλθη] After ύστεραία the particle ή is put, because that word has all the force of a comparative. Sympos. p. 173. A. τη υστερεία ή και τα επινίκια έθυεν αυτός τε και οι χορευται. Instead of the optative člbol we have adopted the subjunctive: for the meaning is: on whatever day it may have returned. Compare Matth. § 527. The only way of explaining the optative is by regarding it as a quotation of the sentence in oratio obliqua : I was to die when the vessel arrived. But the subjunctive appears in the best MSS.

c baoi tou dri oi toutwv kúpuoi] That is, the Eleven, oi Évdexa, who had the office of executing sentence upon those who were condemned by the public tribunals. See note on Apolog. Socr. c. XXVII. and Dict. Antiquities, art. Évdéka. — The particles yé tou on have the force of an affirmation with some restriction, 'at all events, so say they who have the disposal of these matters.' - τεκμαίρομαι δέ έκ τινος, i. e. τεκμαίρομαι τούτο, or ταύτα ούτως έσεσθαι. The verb τεκμαίρεσθαι is frequently thus used with an omission of its object. Compare Gorg. p. 484. B. Republ. p. 406. D.—Socrates refers his dream to the time immediately before his awaking, because it was only after midnight that dreams were regarded as true. See Homer's Od. IV. v. 842. and XX. 82–91. So too Hor. Sat. I. 10. 33.

Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera.

εν καιρώ τινι] Very opportunely. κινδυνεύει, immediately before, is by a peculiar Attic usage equivalent to dokei. Strictly

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