Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

should substitute Elaße for £\áußave. The imperfect, according to Buttmann, serves to indicate the ordinary and legitimate nature of the procedure. Nor is there anything uncommon in the connexion of the different tenses, ελάμβανε and έφύτευσε.

τοϊς νόμους τους περί τους γάμους] The words τοϊς περί Tous yápovç are added by way of defining more closely what is meant by τούτοις ημών τοϊς νόμοις. The τοϊς νόμοις has by some been regarded as a gloss; but the phrase would hardly be complete without it.

d tpopív te kai taideiav] The expression is a common one: compare Phileb. p. 55. D. ουκούν ημίν το μέν, oίμαι, δημιουργικόν έστι της περί τα μαθήματα επιστήμης, το δε περί παιδείαν και τροφήν; Χenoph. Mem. ΙΙΙ. 5. 10. την 'Ερεχθέως γε τροφήν και παιδείαν.

e vj kalūs, k. 7.1.] The laws repeat with great emphasis the same question which they had previously put, in the words: 'Αλλά τοϊς περί τ.τ. γ.-επαιδεύθης; The passage may be thus translated: But do you find fault with the laws respecting the rearing and education which you have received ? Have not those of us (i. e. laws) which have been enacted for these purposes enjoined well, in directing your father to instruct you in music and gymnastics? The common reading ñ oủ k. is incorrect.

* εν μουσική και γυμναστική παιδεύεις;] Perhaps no people have ever felt more deeply the power of music over the mind, than the ancient Greeks. “Rhythm and melody,” says Plato, “ sink down into the soul; and bringing, as they do, grace and symmetry with them, render graceful and symmetrical the man who has been duly trained therein.” De Repub. p. 401. D. E. Hence the prominence which was given to this branch of education, and which assigned to it a co-ordinate place in the three courses of training through which an Athenian citizen was expected to pass -μουσική, γράμματα, γυμναστική. But the word must yet not be taken in our more limited sense. The Greeks often comprehended under this head all the branches of a liberal education; all that portion of human culture, in short, over which the Muses might be regarded as presiding, and which distinguished a gentleman from a clown. A great deal of interesting matter relating to this subject is to be found in the Protagoras, pp. 325, 326. See also Aristoph. Nub. v. 958. for a vigorous eulogy of the system of musical training as it existed in the best days of Athens.


και εγένου τε και εξετράφης και επαιδεύθης] Expressions parallel with the γάμοι, (i.e. γένεσις,) τροφή, and παιδεία before mentioned. So in Alcibiad. Ι. p. 122. Β. της δε σης γενέσεως και τροφής και παιδείας, κ. τ.λ.

Ε και δούλος, αυτός τε και οι σοι πρόγονοι ;] The combined words αυτός τε και οι πρόγονοι form an apposition to the personal pronoun which is the subject of nola. So Sophocles, Ed. Col, ν. 452.

επάξιος μέν Οιδίπους κατοικτίσαι,

αυτός τε παίδες So, too, Apol. c. XXXIII. near the end, δίκαια πεπονθώς εγώ έσομαι υφ' υμών αυτός τε και οι υιείς.-With regard to the word δούλος as expressing the relation of the citizen to the laws, compare Cicero pro Cluentio, c. 53. Legum omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possimus. There is a surrender of a certain measure of personal freedom and independence, in order to the substantial and well-ordered freedom of the whole body.

1 και συ ταύτα αντιποιεϊν] Most manuscripts exhibit the reading και σοι, but it is very questionable whether δίκαιόν εστί μοι ταύτα ποιείν is good Greek. The universal usage of authors seems to be δίκαιός είμι, not δίκαιόν έστι. See c. IV. note (S). Still there is a difficulty about the nominative case cú, where ordinary usage would require ok. Probably this is to be classed among those instances of attraction which are so characteristic of the idiom of Greek; for the verb očal follows almost immediately, requiring a subject in the nominative case. Then, further, if σε had been used, it would render it doubtful whether that pronoun were the subject or the object of the verb αντιποιείν. For an instance of similar attraction to the above, see Protag. p. 316. C. ταύτ' ούν ήδη συ σκόπει, πότερον περί αυτών μόνος οίει δείν διαλέγεσθαι προς μόνους, ή μετ' άλλών. And Demosth. de Falsa Leg. p. 414. 15. ed. Reisk. ηγούμην εν τούτοις πρώτος αυτός περιείναι αυτών δείν και μεγαλοψυχότερος φαίνεσθαι.

Κ ούτε κακώς ακούοντα αντιλέγειν-] These words are added, for the purpose of explaining ταύτα και αντιποιεϊν. It has been already remarked, that connectives are not used with sentences which are added for the purpose of explanation.

1 προς δε την πατρίδα άρα - Compare Apolog. Socrat. C. XXIII. note (C). — A little further on, instead of simply kaì ημάς, we have και συ δε ημάς, in order to add to the force of the opposition. is frequently thus used, in order to bring out the


apodosis with greater energy. The words και τη άλ. τ. αρ. επιμελόμενος, added by way of apposition, are ironical.

τιμιώτερόν εστι πατρίς] There is no need of the article before tarpis, which is found in some MSS. For the nouns πατήρ, μήτηρ, παϊς, αδελφός, γή, πόλις, αγρός, and others, when not used in reference to a certain and definite individual, but to a whole class, are usually put without the article. So, further on: και σέβεσθαι δεί και μάλλον πατρίδα χαλεπαίνουσαν ή πατέρα. There is also an example in the preceding words: μητρός τε και πατρός. For this high estimate of the claims of country, as compared with the ties of affection, compare Cic. Offic. I. 17.57. Cari sunt parentes, cari liberi, propinqui, familiares; sed omnes omnium caritates patria una complexa est.

η και ένα μείζονι μοίρα] 'Εν μείζονι μοίρα είναι is said of that which is held in greater estimation and honour than some other thing. Compare Herodot. ΙΙ. 172. αυτόν εν ουδεμία μεγάλη μοίρη ήγον. The word μοίρα appears, in such phrases, to signify that portion of respect, honour, and reverence which is one's due.

ο και η πείθειν, ή ποιεϊν] That is, either to bring your country over to your way of thinking, or, failing to do this, to obey its orders. Compare the latter part of note (k) to chap. IX of this dialogue. The citizen is at liberty to use persuasion, but not force.

P ή πείθειν αυτήν ή το δ. πέφ.] The infinitive πείθειν is used as if it had been preceded by ποιεϊν δεϊ, because ποιητέον is in fact precisely equivalent to ποιείν δεϊ. Compare c. Χ. note (8). A few similar examples are subjoined by way of illustration: Xenoph. Mem. Ι. 5. 5. εμοί μέν δοκεϊ– ελευθέρω ανδρί εύκτέον είναι μη τυχεϊν δούλου τοιούτου, δουλεύοντα δε ικετεύειν τους θεούς, κ. τ.λ. Lucian. Hermotim. c. 23. Τ. Ι. p. 761. πάντων μάλιστα επί τούτω σπουδαστέον, τών δ' άλλων αμελητέον, και μηδέ πατρίδος....πολύν ποιείσθαι λόγον, μήτε παίδων ή γονέων....επικλάσθαι, αλλά μάλιστα μεν κακείνους παρακαλείν, κ.τ.λ.

XIII. και το εξουσίαν πεποιηκέναι] There is somewhat of redundancy about the mode of expression here employed: προαγορεύομεν τω εξουσίαν πεποιηκέναι.... εξείναι, κ.τ.λ.; that is, we declare, by giving him liberty so to do, that he is at liberty, etc.' Hence Stephens was led to conjecture το εξουσ. πεποιηκέναι, making the εξείναι, κ.τ.λ., to be merely a repetition or expansion of the foregoing phrase. But there is no need for any alteration: the rø RETOINRévai is the dative of the means by which; namely, by a legal enactment to that effect, that a dissatisfied citizen is at liberty to emigrate to another country.

επειδάν δοκιμασθή και ίδη] That is, after he has arrived at years of discretion, and has become acquainted with public affairs. The passage is illustrated by Æschin. adv. Timarch. p. 26. ed. Bremi. επειδάν δε εγγραφή τις εις το ληξιαρχικών γραμματείον, και τους νόμους είδη τους της πόλεως, και ήδη δύνηται διαλογίζεσθαι τα καλά και τα μή, ουκ έτι ετέρω διαλέγεται (ο νομοθέτης). The reference is to the δοκιμασία εις άνδρας. At the age of twenty, on leaving the status of zon Bou, those persons who wished to have the full and perfect rights of Athenian citizens, were enrolled in the Ančiapxıxóv, prior to which they were not qualified to be present or to vote in the assemblies of the people, or to enter upon an inheritance. Before this could be done, an inquiry was instituted as to the parentage, natural or adoptive, of the individual thus suing for citizenship, and sundry particulars of various kinds. Demosthenes makes reference to this doriparia in his speech against Midias, c. 43. There is, therefore, no ground for the alteration dokiuaoy, which has been admitted by most editors, but which is supported by but a solitary manuscript. A little further on, we have the accusative laßóvra, where strict syntax would require laßóvīı. But instances of this kind are extremely common. Compare Soph. Elect. v. 470.

υπεστί μοι θράσος

αδυπνόων κλύουσαν αρτίως όνειράτων, where one might have expected kluovor. On this usage, see Matth. $ 536; and for other examples of the same kind, see Stallbaum's edition of Plat. Sympos. p. 176. D.

εις αποικίαν ιέναι-μετοικείν άλλoσέ ποι] Εις αποικίαν iévai, is to go to an Athenian colony: but METOLKETV is to go to a place belonging to a foreign power, Greek or Barbarian.

4 και ότι ομολογήσας ή μην πείθεσθαι, κ. τ.λ.] That is, after agreeing in very truth to be obedient to us, The formula ή μην is especially used in strong protestations or oaths. The common reading for ή μήν was ημίν, which has been corrected from the best MSS.

očte zeidel nuãs] Understand, that we act unjustly: as appears from the words ει μή καλώς τι ποιούμεν. There is a redundancy in the words τούτων ουδέτερα ποιεϊ, the sentence

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being complete without them. However, since by the clause: προτιθέντων ημών-δυεϊν θάτερα, the principal idea intended to be conveyed is in some measure thrown out of view, there is no impropriety in the repetition, toutwv oúčétepa toleī; especially, since another member of the sentence may appear to commence with αλλά έφιέντων. The laws are in this passage said προτιdéval, with reference to those things which they enjoin, because all edicts were publicly set forth, in order that they might be read and judged of by all, which enabled any one to suggest any improvement. The passage may be thus translated: Whereas we give every one the opportunity of learning and judging of what is enacted by us, and do not, by brutal severity, enforce obedience to our bidding; and, moreover, give a choice of two alternatives, either to convince us of error, or, if he is unable to do so, to obey us; nevertheless, this man does neither of these things.

XIV. a Ταύταις δή φ.- ενέξεσθαι] Ηesychius: ενέχεσθαι, εγκαλείσθαι, κρατείσθαι, συνέχεσθαι. The proper signification of ÉvéXELV is to hold a person bound : hence the middle verb means: to give one's-self up to be bound, and, in the legal sense, to be liable to a charge; from which is derived švoxos, obnoxious, liable to a charge. Translate: To these very charges, Socrates, do we affirm that even you will lay yourself open, if you carry out your purpose ; and that, too, not in any less degree than another Athenian, but rather in the very highest degree.

6 αλλ' εν τοίς μάλιστα] Understand ενεχομένοις, i. e. among those that are so liable, you most of all.

δικαίως καθάπτουντο] Ηesychius: καθάπτεσθαι λοιδορείσθαι, óveldiselv; to reproach, to upbraid.

1 των άλλων Αθηναίων διαφερόντως] That is, more than the other Athenians; for drapépeiv generally indicates difference by way of excess.

ečni Dewpiav] That is, to witness the solemn games, namely, the Olympian, Nemæan, Isthmian, and Pythian, which were attended by persons from every part of Greece.

fei TOL OTP.] When he fought at Potidæa and Amphipolis, in Thrace, and at Delium, in Baotia. See Apolog. c. XVII.

και ουδ' άλλων- είδέναι] That is, ώςτε είδέναι αυτούς. The infinitive is added per epexegesin. We are informed by Seneca, Laertius, Libanius, and others, that Socrates resisted the inducements of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, and other princes, who invited him to settle in their dominions.


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