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5 ώμολόγεις καθ' ημάς πολιτεύεσθαι] The infinitive which is here put in the present tense, was changed by Stephens, contrary to the authority of the MSS., into moliteúgeodal. In the same manner, c. XIII. near the end: kai őri opodoynoas ury naiDeotai oŰTE TEIDETau oőre neibel. And, further on in this chapter: φάσκοντες σε ώμολογηκέναι πολιτεύεσθαι, and καθ' ας ημίν ξυνέθου πολιτεύεσθαι, where, also, Stephens substituted πείσεσθαι and πολιτεύσεσθαι. Legg. p. 937. Β. εάν εγγυητήν αξιόχρεων ή uiv jévelv kataothor: where Ast, with Stephens, wrote pevciv. Herodot. IX. 106. πίστι τε καταλαβόντες και ορκίοισι εμμένειν τε kai un útoothgeofai: where Wesseling, against the MSS., substituted čujevcīv. Xenophon. Cyrop. VI. 2,39. čuoi posayayù v εγγυητάς ή μην πορεύεσθαι: where Stephens preferred πορεύσεσθαι. Anabas. ΙΙ. 3, 27. ομόσαι η μήν πορεύεσθαι: where Schneider, after Stephens, gave topɛúgeotal. Eurip. Med. v. 750. όμνυμι- εμμένειν, ά σου κλύω: where see Schaefer. It certainly is not indifferent whether the future or present tense is used. If the future is employed, the speaker indicates an action not present, but which will take place at some future time, and promises that he will perform it at a future time. As in Xeno. phon. Hellen. ΙΙ. 4. 30. ομόσαντες όρκους ή μήν μή μνησικακήDELV, could not be expressed in any other manner, since not a present, but a future vengeance is thought of. But if the present is used, the speaker refers to a state of things, not simply in futurity, but now present, although it may continue longer When a person says: urv, éppévw; he declares by these words that, from the very moment of his giving the oath, he will abide by what he promises, since the circumstances are now present which call for its fulfilment. If this is a correct view, it must be easy to determine whether the present is to be retained in this passage, or the future form substituted. Let us imagine a citizen swearing that he will direct and govern his life, manners, and pursuits, according to the laws and ordinances of the state, in which he is about to live. Which will be the most suitable: ñ μήν ομολογώ κατά τους νόμους πολιτεύσεσθαι; or ή μήν ομολογώ κατά τους νόμους πολιτεύεσθαι? It appears to us, that the second form of the oath is preferable; since it indicates that from the moment of taking it he undertakes to obey the laws. It cannot, then, be wrong to use the same form of construction in obliqua oratione as is used in directa oratione. Accordingly, in all the passages before quoted, to which many others might be
added, the reading of the MSS. ought to be preserved, as being singularly adapted to the meaning. And as to the addition of kai un ámoothoeodai, the passage may be easily understood, without changing čujévelv into šupeveīv. For the sense is, that not only is it their present purpose to abide by their promise, but but that they will never at any future time depart from it.
With the τά τε άλλα we must understand καθ' ημάς επολιτεύου (or Toliteúouevos): You conducted yourself as a citizen of ours in various respects, and amongst others in this, that you beyat children in this commonwealth, etc. The idiom is a very frequently recurring one. The particular thing singled out from the alla, as here, the generation of children, being intended to receive especial emphasis.
και εξήν σοι φυγής τιμήσασθαι] Referring to the opportunity presented to him, after the first vote of the dicasts, of specifying a particular penalty for his offence. See Apol. cc. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. Socrates might have named exile, instead of the nominal fine of thirty minæ; and, by so doing, would have been far more likely to have conciliated the favour of the tribunal, at least so far as to procure a sentence of banishment instead of death. kallwaiteodal, according to Hesychius, is properly kooueñolat, to adorn, or deck one's-self: whence kallwniorpia, a female who adorns others, a lady's-maid. But, in a metaphorical sense, it signifies: to be vain like a fop, to be elated, to swagger, as here. Protagor. p. 333. D. TÒ uży oŭv tpūTov škallwní Seto ημίν και Πρωταγόρας-έπειτα μέντοι ξυνεχώρησεν αποκρίνεσθαι. Respecting the infinitive tedvávat, for which Ovhokalv might have been expected, see Apolog. Socrat. c. XVII, note (2).
k "Αλλο τι ούν αν φαϊεν] The particle άν was commonly omitted in cases like this; but there are numerous examples of its insertion. Compare Demosth. p. 1445. 14. ed. Reisk. Ti oởv αν είπoι τις συ παραινείς; Olynth. p. 14. 5. ed. R. τί ούν άν τις είπoι συ γράφεις; Plato, Phed. p. 87. Β. τί ούν αν φαίη ο λόγος έτι άπιστείς.
1 ας δη εκάστοτε φώς ευνομ.] The laws and institutes of Lacedæmon and Crete are eulogised by the Platonic Socrates in various passages of his different dialogues. Compare Protag. p. 342. C. D. γνοίητε δ' άν, ότι εγώ ταύτα αληθή λέγω, και Λακεδαιμόνιοι πρός φιλοσοφίας και λόγους άριστα πεπαιδευνται. Also, Repub. VIII. p. 544. C., etc. The particle ori here indicates a kind of appeal to the listener, as to the truth of a state
ment respecting which he is prepared to judge: Which you know very well you are in the habit of praising, etc. ÉkáOTOTE, i.e. whenever you mention them.
m ovdè tūv Bapßapikõv] This is the correct reading, being opposed to πόλεων Ελληνίδων. If βαρβάρων were read, των Ελλήνων πόλεων would have been used.
η οι νόμοι δήλον ότι] These words appeared to Stephens to have arisen from a gloss. But Fischer has correctly observed that, if they were removed, what follows would lose much of its force: τίνι γάρ αν πόλις αρέσκοι άνευ νόμων; Besides, δήλον ότι, or, as it was commonly written, òylovórı, refers not only to oi vómot, but to the whole of the foregoing sentence, as if the passage stood thus: δήλον ότι ούτω διαφερόντως σοι ήρεσκεν η πόλις τε και οι νόμοι.
• ļàv nuiv ye neily] In these words the laws answer themselves: · You will do so, if you will hearken to us.' The words necessary to complete the sentence are readily supplied from the preceding questions: εμμενείς τους ώμολογημένοις.
XV. a rõ TOÚTwv Toliteią] That is, to the citizens of these commonwealths; the abstract moletela being equivalent to the concrete rolītai. So in Thucydides, we have ovjuaxia used as equivalent to oi ouppaxou. And it would not be difficult to multiply examples. A little further on, ůroßXÉTTELV is to treat with suspicion. Both the active and middle forms seem to be used in this sense. Hesychius: υποβλεπόμενος υπονοών, έχθραίνων.
και βεβαιώσεις 8.] That is, either, You will confirm the judges in their opinion that they were right in condemning you : or, You will confirm others in the opinion that the judges were right in their decision; as if the reading were ώςτε αυτούς δοκεϊν, κ. τ.λ. Stallbaum prefers the latter interpretation of the passage.
C και των ανδρών τους κοσμιωτάτους] Κόσμιοι is said of those who observe cóquos. i. e. order and moderation, or, as Fischer in
i terprets it, those who diligently direct and regulate their life, morals, and pursuits according to the standard of the laws; the moderate, upright. It is, therefore, about equivalent to ĚTLELKETS.
d xai toūTO TOLOūVTi åpa äg.] Similarly, Phædo, p. 65. A. και δοκεί γε που τους πολλούς ανθρώποις, ώ μηδέν ηδύ των τοιούTwv, oủk äčlov elvai Sñv.-A little further on we have written: και αναισχυντήσεις διαλεγόμενος-τίνας λόγους; since the structure of the sentence is changed by an interrogation suddenly in
troduced. The former reading was: και αναισχυντήσεις διαλεγόμενός τινας λόγους, ώ Σ., ή ούςπερ ενθάδε. The use of the interrogative gives great life to the expression: discoursing, yet what kind of discourses ?' while the indefinite rivas is tame and meaningless. The interrogative pronoun, too, rivas, is found in the best MSS.
€ άσχημον αν φανείσθαι] The particle αν with a future infinitive is not unusual, any more than with the future participle, on which see Apol. c. XVII. note (). For the future infinitive gavęłodai is capable of being resolved sometimes into the future indicative, and sometimes into the future optative; in the latter of which cases, it may, of course, take âv with it.—TÒ ToŨ Ewkpárous mpãyua, the business or affair of Socrates, is to be understood as meaning Socrates himself. So tò apãyua is said of the people, Gorg. p. 520. B. And Herodotus I. 36, has péya χρήμα συός for a great boar.-The expression οίεσθαί γε χρή is often used in this manner. See c. XVI. εάν δε εις "Αιδου αποδημήσης, ουχί επιμελήσονται;-οίεσθαί γε χρή. Ρhed. p. 68, Α. ουκ άσμενος είσιν αυτόσε; οίεσθαί γε χρή. Protag. p. 325. C. ταύτα δ' άρα ου διδάσκονται ουδ' επιμελούνται πάσαν επιμέλειαν; oleodai ye xpń. Gorg. p. 412. B.
* εκεί γάρ δή πλείστη-ακολασία] The Thessalians were then infamous, on account of the licentiousness of their mode of living; their fraudulence, indecency, wantonness, luxury, and other vices. See Athenæus, IV. 6. p. 137. X. 4. p. 418. XII. 6. p. 527. XIV. 33. p. 663.-Fischer.
8 σκευήν τέ τινα περιθ.] The word σκευή does not denote any particular article of clothing, but includes the whole of the attire. Putting on some (different) kind of raiment by way of disguise, wearing, for, example, a leather coat, or any of the various articles of dress which runaway slaves are in the habit of assuming, and transforming your personal appearance.
boxñua] That is, general appearance, arising more especially out of the dress. Ηesychius: σχήμα ιματισμός. The σκευή includes the leather coats, or sundry vestments and disguises which are mentioned or hinted at; the oxñua sums up the whole, indicating the tout ensemble which is the result of these contrivances.
ετόλμησας ούτω γλίσχρως] Here τολμάν is to endure, not to blush at, ουκ αισχύνεσθαι.
k el dè un'] But if otherwise; but if you should be troublesome to the Thessalians. In all such cases ei dè un is used, without any regard to the positive or negative character of the proposition, which is thus hypothetically denied. See Matth. Gr. § 617. Buttmann, § 135. 10. Compare Enrip. Alcest. v. 707. ει δ' ημάς κακώς έρείς, ακούσει πολλά κου ψευδή κακά.
1 υπερχόμενος δή-πάντας-και δουλεύων] These are some of the taunts, mollå kai švažia, which, it is urged, will be levelled against Socrates, should he withdraw himself into Thessaly: You will live, forsooth, constantly seeking to ingratiate yourself with everybody, and becoming the slave of all: and will you be doing anything else than banquetting in Thessaly, as if you had left your country for Thessaly, in order to attend a supperparty! That is, such will be the sinister interpretation which the enemies of Socrates will put upon his conduct. Schleiermacher considers ti horūv introduced in so awkward a manner, and dovlɛúwv so superfluous, that he regards the latter as a gloss on υπερχόμενος, and would read the sentence: υπερχόμενος δή T. åvop. Biúgel kai ti totāv.-Buttmann, disliking the introduction of £v Oertaliq, towards the end of so long a sentence, and having seen in one MS. eis Ostraliav, omits these words after αποδεδημ., and thus remodels the whole passage: υπερχόμενος δη βιώσει πάντας ανθρώπους, και τί ποιών ή ευωχούμενος, εις Θετταλίαν ώςπερ επί δείπνον αποδεδημηκώς; But, to say nothing of the objections which might be offered to this correction, it does not appear necessary to alter the common reading. For kai dovlevwv is by no means without a distinct signification; it expresses the meaning more forcibly than the preceding útepxóuevos. The second reproach is stronger than the first, especially when directed against a man who had so utter an aversion to everything servile. It does not appear necessary to insert kai before tí holūv, as Schleiermacher has done. Indeed, the animation of the appeal seems impaired by so doing. Nor is the repetition of the word Thessaly without force. “ Banquetting in Thessaly, as he had said, - as though it were necessary to go all the way to Thessaly to supper.” –πού έσονται, κ. τ.λ., i.e. What will become of all those fine speeches about justice, and the other elements of virtue, I wonder ? The ñuñv is a dativus ethicus, and indicates the interest of the questioner in the subject of the inquiry. In the above use of toũ, compare Axiochus