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plimentary votes to each candidate, and now that his time of trial had come, all were "returned with interest," and he received the nomination.

In 1866, while Mr. Seward was still in the cabinet of Andrew Johnson and many conservative republicans were sustaining the administration, Mr. Paddock became a candidate for Congress, receiving a conservative republican and democratic vote, but failed of election by a majority of 848 votes, in favor of John Taffe.

In 1867 President Johnson gave him the nomination of Governor of Wyoming territory, which was finally declined. Subsequently he was elected a senator of the United States, in 1875, and re-elected in 1887, while in the interim he served on the Utah commission.

Among the many duties devolving upon him as acting governor, was his preparation for the subjugation of the hostile Indians in the year 1862.

OMAHA, NEBR., TERRITORY, Sept. 9, 1862.

Hon. E. M. Stanton, Sec'y of War: Powerful bands of Indians are retiring from Minnesota into the northern counties of this Territory. Settlers by the hundreds are fleeing. Instant action is demanded. I can turn out a militia force, a battery of three pieces of six pounders, and from six to ten companies of cavalry and mounted infantry. The Territory is without credit or a cent of money. Authorize me to act for the general government in providing immediate defense and I can do all that is necessary with our militia, if subsisted and paid by the government. A. S. PADDOCK,

Sec'y and Acting-Governor of Nebraska.

Authority being granted, all preliminary steps were taken, the Second Nebraska cavalry organized and placed under the command of Col. Furnas, and a complete victory obtained over the savages in the battle of Whitestone Hills, with the Brules, Yankton and Blackfeet Sioux.

When the legislature convened in January, 1867, the governor being absent on official business, the duty of presenting the annual message devolved upon the territorial secretary, Hon.

A. S. Paddock. The facts and figures of the accompanying reports of state officers belonged to the administration of Governor Saunders, while the secretary was entitled to full credit for most wise and conservative views upon the national land system, results of the war, impartial suffrage, and kindred themes of vital importance to the embryo state.

The financial statement gave an available surplus of $61,810, whereas six years before, the date of the governor's first message, the indebtedness was $37,226. The revision of the laws had been accomplished in an admirable manner. "The wise economy" of the homestead law "had been no more clearly illustrated than in this territory." Said he, "How much wiser then the economy which gives to productive industry the possession of the national domain free of cost, than that which disposes of it in large tracts to speculators, in whose hands it remains unoccupied and unimproved, a veritable obstacle in the way of the rapid settlement and development of the country." Among numerous recommendations made to the legislature was that for a memorial to Congress protesting against any future cash sales of public lands, or withdrawing from market for prospective railroads, or locations by script or warrants unless for new state uses, and also asking that government buy the Union Pacific railroad lands and devote them to free settlement. It was also recommended that a liberal amount be appropriated to secure the active labors of immigrant agents, and to accomplish a geological survey of the Territory. In order to bring in closer relations, commercially and socially, the inhabitants north and south of the Platte, a free bridge was urged as an unavoidable necessity.

A very satisfactory review of the railroad situation was closed as follows:

Such brilliant railroad prospects have very rarely, if ever, presented themselves to the people of a new state or territory. Nature has marked this spot, equi-distant from the two great oceans, as the pivotal center of the railroad system of America. God grant that the Union Pacific railroad, which is the true base of all prosperity, may be

speedily completed to the Pacific. May it form an additional
bond of union to the states, a never failing source of pride,
of glory and of strength, to the nation, and an equal source
of pride and profit to the brave and energetic gentlemen
who engaged in its construction.

After commending the admission of the Territory as a state of the Union, and proffering co-operation in behalf of greater efficiency in the common schools, the acting governor concluded his official communication with temperate and patriotic allusions:

I should hail with joy a radical change in the rule of suffrage which would give the franchise to intelligence and patriotism wherever found, regardless of the color of its possessor. He who can read understandingly the constitution of his country, and he who has fought in its defense, of whatever race or color, should have a voice in the choice of the nation's rulers. I should therefore cheerfully concur with you in a memorial to Congress, praying for an amendment of our organic law, in accordance with this view. No change, however, should be made which would take the franchise away from any person who now enjoys it under existing laws.

At the time he delivered his message there was a peculiar significance in the following:

The kind offices of the peacemaker avail not, and the olive branch is cast aside, a withered and useless thing. How can our beloved country be united again in fact as well as in form? How can the Union be firmly re-established in the hearts and in the affections of the people of all sections? For the patriotic love of the people is the soul of the union, its preservation is essential to the very life of the nation itself. I do not believe it can be done by depriving eleven states of loyal representatives in the national congress, when representation is the very germ and essence of union. Only that which will win back the hearts of the southern people will give stability and enduring peace to the Republic.

In conclusion, permit me to assure you that I shall most earnestly co-operate with you in every endeavor to promote the varied interests of our Territory. Whatever measures may commend themselves to your wisdom and judgment, as

best calculated to promote the general welfare will receive my most cordial approval. Permit me to wish you a pleasant sojourn at the territorial capital, and after the labors of the session are terminated, a happy return in safety and in health, to your families and friends.


May 15, 1861 to Mar. 1, 1867.

Gov. Alvin Saunders1 claims Kentucky as his birthplace, and was born on the 12th of July, 1817. At twelve years of age he was taken by his parents to the State of Illinois, and in his 19th year united his destiny with the small village of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. With patience and luck he endured the vicissitudes of pioneer life, and as merchant's clerk and merchant, as postmaster and member of a constitutional convention, as representative of the people in the state senate and in the Chicago National Convention of 1860, which nominated Mr. Lincoln, he secured and held the implicit confidence of an honest, intelligent and patriotic community. Though of Virginia parentage and Kentucky birth, having developed an enthusiasm for "free speech, free soil, and free men," he was fully competent to stand guard on freedom's battlements during the stormy days of the Union.

After discharging the duties of Governor for a term of four years, the circumstances attending the signing of his second commission were so peculiar that they are treasured up as a sacred remembrance.

I saw Mr. Lincoln, who told me to return home, as it was all right and he would attend to the commission. I started for home in the morning, and in the evening of the same day he was killed. I telegraphed back to find out what had become of my commission, and learned that the room had not been opened. When it was opened the commission was found on the table, unfolded, with his signature attached. It was not signed by Mr. Seward. I have the commission in Mr. Lincoln's name, but the appointment was actually made out by Mr. Johnson.

1 Gunnell Saunders, father of Alvin Saunders, was a native of Loudoun County, Va., who emigrated to Bourbon County, Ky., when a young man, and thence to Fleming County. His ancestry was English, and his wife, maiden name Mary Manzy, was a native of Culpepper County, Va., from French family. Alvin was one of five sons. Gunnell went to Springfield, Ill., about 1829.

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