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years later, the democratic platform read: "Resolved, that the Democracy of Nebraska accept the adoption of all amendments of the fundamental law of the land as a formal settlement of the questions disposed of thereby."

The State's admission, and the suffrage question both settled and out of the contest, in 1870 the republicans endorsed Grant's administration, commended congress for a reduction of the burdens of taxation and extended sympathy to Germany in her struggle with France; while the democrats resolved, "That all taxation, to be just, must be for a public purpose, equal, and uniform; that the national government has no right to levy a tax upon one individual to advance or promote the interest of another."

The condition, to which the state was to give assent, was, "That within the State of Nebraska there should be no denial of the elective franchise, by reason of color or race," except to untaxed Indians. This having been complied with, the state was formally admitted by the president's proclamation of March 1, 1867, when Governor Saunders was superseded by Governor David Butler. On retiring he indulged in a few parting words to a constituency that, in full, reciprocated his confidence and




OMAHA, NEBRASKA, March 27, 1867.
I have this day received official notice from the State De-
partment at Washington, of the President's Proclamation
announcing that the Legislature of Nebraska has accepted
the conditions proposed by Congress, and declaring the fact
that Nebraska is admitted as one of the independent states
of the Union. The Governor elect under the state organiza-
tion being now ready to take charge of the office, my duties
as the Chief Executive of the Territory this day cease.

I take pleasure, before retiring from this office, in availing
myself of this opportunity of returning my sincere thanks
to the people of the Territory for their uniform kindness,
and for the alacrity and promptness with which every offi-
cial demand upon them has been honored, whether in war
or in peace. No period of time of the same length since the

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organization of our Government has been so eventful and full of interesting history as has been the six years I have been honored with an official connection with the people of Nebraska, and it gives me great pleasure to know that peace and general prosperity now prevail throughout our whole country, and especially to know that no country can truthfully boast of greater peace or more genuine prosperity than can Nebraska.

Especially do I feel proud of the financial condition of the Territory. Six years ago the debt of the Territory was fully two dollars for every man, woman and child in it, and the warrants of the treasury were selling at from twentyfive to thirty cents on the dollar. Now her paper is at par, and she is ready to pay every dollar of her indebtedness of whatever character, so that the new state can commence her career without a dollar of debt hanging over her. This condition of affairs, so far as my knowledge extends, is without a parallel in the history of new states, and gives cause for mutual and general congratulation. While our officers and people have been so attentive to the finances of our country, they have not been idle or wanting in other important particulars, for during the war Nebraska furnished as many troops as any other state or territory in proportion to its population, and no soldier from any quarter showed more valor or made a better record for bravery or true soldierly conduct than did those from Nebraska. So, viewing it from any standpoint, I feel proud that I have been permitted to occupy so conspicuous a position among a people so patriotic, prompt, and appreciative. With my best wishes for the prosperity of the whole people, of our new State, and for its great success, I am, etc., ALVIN SAUNDERS.



Whoever attempts to write history for the people of Nebraska, or sketch the career of prominent citizens, meets with many impediments. So young is the State, that many of the actors are still in stage costume, and extremely sensitive as to any criticism upon the performers or the play. Scenes that were thrilling to them and heralded as tragic, divested of their sur roundings may innocently by strangers be classed as comical.

An eloquent author once said: "Every attempt to present on paper the splendid effects of impassioned eloquence, is like gathering up dewdrops, which appear jewels and pearls on the grass, but run to water in the hand-the essence and the elements remain, but the grace, the sparkle, and the form are gone." And so when the writer erects a statue upon the historic page and exclaims, "Behold the man!" the disappointed reader may demand, "What of the electric current that warmed the heart, illumined the eye, and flushed the cheek; what of the hopes that impelled, the fears that retarded, the placidity or turbulence that dominated the inner life?" In spite of all hindrances and discouragements, with an apology to the "old settler," and a salutation to the new-comer and his juvenile family, the writer enters upon the theme, Nebraska in Congress.

Her first appearance before the government was as a very diminutive, nameless infant in arms, when in April, 1803, France, by treaty, gave her mother Louisiana away, in marriage, to “Uncle Sam." In 1804 Louisiana was erected into two territories, called Orleans and District of Louisiana, and provision was made for

the formation of a State Constitution for the Territory of Orleans whenever the population reached 60,000. Having acquired the specified amount in 1810, an Enabling Act was passed in 1811, and in 1812 the Territory of Orleans with the name of Louisiana was admitted into the Union as a state; leaving the balance of the purchase for future disposal.

The Louisiana purchase cost the United States $11,250,000; and such an amount due the citizens of the United States, from France, as should not exceed $3,750,000.

It was bounded north by the British possessions, south by Mexico, and west by the Rocky Mountains, and is to-day included in the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota, and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.

The name of Louisiana was changed to Missouri Territory in 1812, and later the southern part became the Territory of Arkansas. The necessary steps being taken, a part known as Missouri became a state June, 1821. As Missouri was coming in as a slave state, the free states demanded "a set-off," hence the Missouri Compromise was enacted, to quiet "slavery agitation forever," and this, when ruthlessly repealed in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, precipitated the "death to slavery forever" struggle. By that notable act, all new states subsequently formed north of parallel of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, dividing the Louisiana Purchase, should come in free or slave, as the people might determine. And so a protecting barrier was erected between Nebraska and slave territory for a term of thirty-three years, ending in 1854.

This same line was extended through Texas, under certain conditions, on her admission to the Union in 1845. In 1850, when the Union was endangered by the fiery discussion over the admission of California as a free state, the doctrine of non-intervention as to slavery was affirmed; and when it was enacted in the organic law of Nebraska that the Missouri Compromise was "inoperative and void," and slavery was a question exclusively for the people to settle, Senator Benton of Missouri declared the

statement was "a stump speech injected into the belly of the bill." Had Nebraska then been as far south as Kansas, border warfare would have desolated her plains, murdered citizens, and laid homes and cities in ashes.

Nebraska was introduced to congress, by name, in 1844, when a bill to define her boundaries was presented to the House of Representatives. In 1854 the step-daughter was considered of sufficient age to commence superintending her future estate, under the directions and instructions contained in a law of congress denominated the Organic Act.

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