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merely moral, but laid deep in the natural constitution of things. Three thousand miles of ocean lie between you and them. No contrivance can prevent the effect of this distance in weakening government. Seas roll, and months pass,1 between the order and the execution; and the want of a speedy explanation of a single point is enough to defeat a whole system.

You have, indeed, winged ministers 2 of vengeance, who carry your bolts in their pounces 3 to the remotest verge of the sea. But there a power steps in, that limits the arrogance of raging passions and furious elements, and says, “So far shalt thou go, and no farther." 4 Who are you, that you should fret and rage, and bite the chains of Nature ? Nothing worse happens to you than does to all nations who have extensive empire; and it happens in all the forms into which empire can be thrown.

In large bodies, the circulation of power must be less vigorous at the extremities. Nature has said it. The Turk can not govern Egypt, and Arabia, and Curdistan as he governs Thrace; nor has he the same dominion in Crimea and Algiers which he has at Brusa and Smyrna. Despotism itself is obliged to truck and huckster. The sultan gets such obedience as he can. with a loose rein, that he may govern at all; and the

He governs

1 Seas roll, and months pass. in the talons ("pounces ") of the Note the vividness of the expres- eagle, the bird of Jove. sion.

4 So far, etc. Whence is the 2 winged ministers. The war- quotation drawn ? Is it entirely ships of England.

correct in form ? 3 bolts in their pounces. In al 5 truck and huckster. Exlusion to the thunderbolts figured | plain.

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whole of the force and vigor of his authority in his center is derived from a prudent relaxation in all his borders. Spain in her provinces is, perhaps, not so well obeyed as you are in yours. She complies too; she submits; she watches times. This is the immutable condition, the eternal law, of extensive and detached empire.

Then, sir, from these six capital sources — of descent; of form of government; of religion in the northern provinces; of manners in the southern;1 of education; of the remoteness of situation from the first mover of government, — from all these causes, a fierce spirit of liberty has grown up. It has grown with the growth of the people in your Colonies, and increased with the increase of their wealth, - a spirit that, unhappily meeting with an exercise of power in England which, however lawful, is not reconcilable to any ideas of liberty, much less with theirs, has kindled this flame that is ready to consume us.


[The following forms the peroration of the Speech on Conciliation.]

My hold of the Colonies is in the close affection which grows from common names, from kindred blood, from similar privileges, and equal protection. These

1 of religion ... southern. The Change this rhetorical expression passages covering these topics have into plain terms. been omitted in these extracts.

protection. 2 kindled

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Note the climax.

common names...



are ties which, though light as air, are as strong as links of iron. Let the Colonies always keep the idea of their civil rights associated with your government,

- they will cling and grapple to you,2 and no force under heaven will be of power to tear them from their allegiance. But let it be once understood that your government may be one thing and their privileges another, that these two things may exist without any mutual relation, — the cement is gone, the cohesion is loosened, and every thing hastens to decay and dissolution.

As long as you have the wisdom to keep the sovereign authority of this country as the sanctuary of liberty, the sacred temple consecrated to our common faith, wherever the chosen race and sons of England worship freedom, they will turn their faces towards you. The more they multiply, the more friends you will have; the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience.4

Slavery they can have anywhere. It is a weed 5 that grows in every soil. They may have it from Spain; they may have it from Prussia. But, until you become lost to all feeling of your true interest and your natural dignity, freedom they can have from none but you. This is the commodity of price, of which you have

1 light as air ... as links of

3 As long

towards you. iron. What is the figure of speech? What kind of sentence, rhetori“Light as air" is a phrase from cally? Othello.

4 The more ... obedience. A 2 cling and grapple to you. fine instance of a balanced sentence. "grapple to you" is a phrase from a weed. What is the figure of Hamlet.



the monopoly. This is the true Act of Navigation, which binds to you the commerce of the colonies, and through them secures to you the wealth of the world.

Deny them this participation of freedom, and you break that sole bond which originally made, and must still preserve, the unity of the empire. Do not entertain so weak an imagination as that your registers and your bonds, your affidavits and your sufferances, your cockets 3 and ycur clearances,4 are what form the great securities of your commerce. Do not dream that your letters of office, and your instructions, and your suspending clauses, are the things that hold together the great contexture of this mysterious whole. These things do not make your government. Dead instruments, passive tools as they are, it is the spirit of the English communion that gives all their life and efficacy to them. It is the spirit of the English Constitution, which, infused through the mighty mass, pervades, feeds, unites, invigorates, vivifies, every part of the empire, even down to the minutest member.

Is it not the same virtue which does every thing for us here in England ? Do you imagine, then, that it is

1 Act of Navigation. Recall what | duly entered, and that the duties you have learnt of this law, in on them have been paid. your study of United States history. 4 A clearance is an official paper

2 registers ... sufferances. Al certifying that a ship has cleared at luding to the official routine of the the custom-house, that is, done all custom-house.

that is required of it, and so is au3 A cocket is a custom-house thorized to sail. certificate, granted to merchants, pervades... vivifies. Figure showing that goods have been of speech?


the Land-tax Act which raises your revenue? that it is the annual vote in the Committee of Supply which gives you your army? or that it is the Mutiny Bill which inspires it with bravery and discipline? No! surely, no! It is the love of the people; it is their attachment to their government, from the sense of the deep stake they have in such a glorious institution, which gives you your army and your navy, and infuses into both that liberal obedience without which your army would be a base rabble and your navy nothing but rotten timber.

All this, I know well enough, will sound wild and chimericala to the profane herd of those vulgar and mechanical politicians who have no place among us; a sort of people who think that nothing exists but what is gross and material; and who, therefore, far from being qualified to be directors of the great movement of empire, are not fit to turn a wheel in the machine. But to men truly initiated and rightly taught, these ruling and master principles, which, in the opinion of such men as I have mentioned, have no substantial existence, are in truth every thing, and all in all. Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom; and a great empire and little minds 3 go ill together.

If we are conscious of our situation, and glow with

1 Land-tax. This tax was for- 2 chimerical. See Webster. merly a much more important item 3 a great empire and little in the British revenue than now: minds. What is the figure of it used to contribute more than a speech? third of the whole, now only about 4 If we are, etc. What kind of one sixty-fourth.


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