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e people whit tit. ' S

ond; yet Qetea. "ITE

and their 1 formerly continued keep open

eted, and to beer. It

descendants to: 11 T** *23

ed 2 Saxons. in the 11:11 the second ir had lorg illegal ti was justi

of the rich glassy antipati

e mentioned in the Normat.

eds of broad-headed, for the

aks, which had witrch of the Roman solns over a thick carpet of

ard; in some places they THE 三、会

ceches, hollies, and copsewood so closely as totally to intercept ne sinking sun; in others, they other, forming those long sweeping icacy of which the eye delights to lose gination considers them as the paths to nes of sylvan solitude.6


· Glossary.
d: from the same

4 march of... soldiery. When was this?

5 vista. See Glossary.

6 imagination ... solitude. Cbe serve the personification.

ades. Note the al-
fine “glades.”


French 2 was the only language employed. In courts of law, the pleadings and judgments were delivered in the same tongue. In short, French was the language of honor, of chivalry, and even of justice, while the far more manly and expressive Anglo-Saxon was abandoned to the use of rustics and hinds, who knew no other.

Still, however, the necessary intercourse between the lords of the soil 2 and those oppressed inferior beings by whom that soil was cultivated, occasioned the gradual formation of a dialect, compounded betwixt the French and the Anglo-Saxon, in which they could render themselves mutually intelligible to each other; * and from this necessity arose by degrees the structure of our present English language, in which the speech of the victors and the vanquished have been so happily blended together, and which has since been so richly improved by importations from the classical languages, and from those spoken by the southern nations of Europe.

This state of things I have thought it necessary to premises for the information of the general reader, who might be apt to forget, that, although no great historical events, such as war or insurrection, mark the

1 Norman-French: the language 2 lords of the soil. The Nornan brought into England by the fol-rulers. lowers of William the Conqueror. 3 inferior beings. The conquered It was called Norman-French be- Anglo-Saxons. cause a tribe of the Scandinavian

4 mutually.

other Point - called the Norman (or North-out a redundant expression. man) race conquered and settled 5 premise. See Glossary. in Normandy.

apt. Better liable.


existence of the Anglo-Saxons as a separate people subsequent to the reign of William the Second; yet the great national distinctions betwixt them and their conquerors, the recollection of what they had formerly been, and to what they were now reduced, continued down to the reign of Edward the Third, to keep open the wounds which the Conquest had inflicted, and to maintain a line of separation betwixt the descendants of the victor? Normans and the vanquished 2 Saxons.


The sun was setting upon one of the rich glassy glades 3 of that forest which we have mentioned in the beginning of the chapter. Hundreds of broad-headed, short-stemmed, wide-branched oaks, which had witnessed perhaps the stately march of the Roman soldiery,4 flung their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of the most delicious greensward; in some places they were intermingled with beeches, hollies, and copsewood of various descriptions, so closely as totally to intercept the level beams of the sinking sun; in others, they receded from each other, forming those long sweeping vistas, in the intricacy of which the eye delights to lose itself, while imagination considers them as the paths to yet wilder scenes of sylvan solitude.6

I victor. See Glossary.

2 vanquished: from the same root as victor. 8

glassy glades. Note the alliteration ; define “glades."

4 march of . soldiery. When was this?

5 vista. See Glossary.

6 imagination ... solitude. Cb. serve the personification.

Here the red rays of the sun shot a broken and discolored light, that partially hung upon the shattered boughs and mossy trunks of the trees, and there they illuminated in brilliant patches the portions of turf to which they made their way. A considerable open space, in the midst of this glade, seemed formerly to have been dedicated to the rites of Druidical superstition ;1 for on the summit of a hillock, so regular as to seem artificial, there still remained part of a circle of rough unhewn 2 stones, of large dimensions. Seven stood upright; the rest had been dislodged from their places, probably by the zeal of some convert to Christianity, and lay, some prostrate near their former site, and others on the side of the hill. One large stone only had found its way to the bottom, and in stopping the course of a small brook, which glided smoothly round the foot of the eminence, gave, by its opposition, a feeble voice of murmur to the placid and elsewhere silent streamlet.

The human figures which completed this landscape were in number two, partaking, in their dress and appearance, of that wild and rustic character which belonged to the woodlands of the West-Riding of Yorkshire at the early period. The eldest of these men had a stern, savage, and wild 4 aspect. His garment was of the simplest form imaginable, being a close jacket with

1 Druidical superstition: that 2 unhewn. What is the force of is, the superstition of the Druids, the prefix ? respecting which the pupil will 8 completed, filled out the picfind many interesting details in ture. Thorpe's History of the Anglo-Sax 4 stern ... wild. Is there any

redundancy here?


sleeves, composed of the tanned skin of some animal, on which the hair had been originally left, but which had been worn off in so many places that it would have been difficult to distinguish, from the patches that remained, to what creature the fur had belonged.

This primeval? vestment reached from the throat to the knces, and served at once all the usual purposes of body-clothing; there was no wider opening at the collar than was necessary to admit the passage of the head, from which it may be inferred that it was put on by slipping it over the head and shoulders, in the manner of a modern shirt, or ancient hauberk.2 Sandals, bound with thongs made of boar's hide, protected the feet; and a roll of thin leather was twined artificially around the legs, and, ascending above the calf, left the knees bare like those of a Scottish Highlander. To make the jacket sit yet more close to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt, secured by a brass buckle; to one side of which was attached a sort of scrip, and to the other a ram's horn, accouteredo with a mouthpiece, for the purpose of blowing.

In the same belt was stuck one of those long, broad, sharp-pointed, and two-edged knives, with a buck'shorn handle, which were fabricated in the neighborhood, and bore, even at this early period, the name of a Sheffield whittle. The man had no covering 6 upon

primeval, primitive, rude. 5 à Sheffield whittle. For what 2 hauberk, a shirt of mail formed branch of manufacture is Sheffield, of small steel rings interwoven. England, noted? For etymology 3 scrip, a small bag or wallet. of “whittle,” see Webster.

4 accoutered. Is this a common 6 covering. Give the principal nieaning of the term ?

parts of this verb.

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