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Torments? him. Round he throws his baleful? eyes,
That witnessed 3 huge affliction and dismay,
Mixed with obdurate 4 pride, and steadfast hate.
At once, as far as angel's ken, he views
The dismal situation 6 waste and wild.
A dungeon horrible on all sides round
As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames
No light;? but rather darkness visible 8
Served only to discover sights of woe, —
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
And rest can never dwell; hope never comes,
That comes to all; but torture without end
Still urges,10 and a fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed.
Such place Eternal Justice had prepared
For those rebellious, here their prison ordained
In utter 11 darkness, and their portion set
As far removed from God and light of heaven
As from the center thrice to the utmost pole.12
(0, how unlike the place from whence they fell!)

10

1 torments. The historical pres- 8 darkness visible. De Quincey ent: give subsequent examples. explains this as a sullen light in

2 baletul, causing bale, or sorrow. termingled with massy darkness."

3 witnessed, bore witness to. 9 discover, disclose. The word is always used in this urges, presses, drives. sense in Shakespeare and Milton, 11 utter, outer. See Matt. xxii. and not (as now) as merely equiva- 13. lent to saw.

12 center thrice to the utmost 4 obdurate. Accent on the sec- pole. According to Milton's sysond syllable.

tem, the center of the earth is also 5 ken. See Glossary.

the center of the universe, and the 6 situation, site, region.

utmost pole" here meant is not 7 no light. Supply the missing the pole of the earth, but that of verb.

the universe.

There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and, weltering by his side,
One next himself in power and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine and named
Beëlzebub:2 to whom the arch-enemy,
And thence in heaven called Satan, 3 — with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:
“If thou beest 4 he, — but O, how fallen ! how

changed
From him, who, in the happy realms of light,
Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine
Myriads though bright!--if he, whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
And hazard in the glorious enterprise,
Joined with me once, now misery hath joined
In equal ruin; into what pit, thou seest,
From what height fallen! so much the stronger proved
He 5 with his thunder: and till then who knew
The force of those dire arins? Yet not for those,
Nor what the potent victor in his rage
Can else inflict, do I repent or change
(Though changed in outward luster6) that fixed mind
And high disdain from sense of injured merit
That with the Mightiest raised me to contend,
And to the fierce contention brought along
Innumerable force of spirits armed,
That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring,
His utmost power with adverse power opposed
In dubious 2 battle on the plains of heaven,
And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost — the unconquerable will,
And study 3 of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield,
And what is else not to be overcome,
That glory never shall his wrath or might
Extort 4 from me. To bow and sue for grace,
With suppliant knee, and deify his power
Who from the terror of this arm so late
Doubted his empire, that were low indeed,
That were an ignominy 6 and shame beneath
This downfall; since by fate the strength of gods
And this empyreal substance can not fail,
Since through experience of this great event
In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced,
We may with more successful hope resolve

1 weltering. From Anglo-Sax- 3 and thence ... Satan. Thence, on wæltan, to roll.

because “Satan" is a Hebrew word 2 Beëlzebub. This term signi- signifying enemy, adversary. fies literally “Lord of Flies;” and 4 beest, not subjunctive, but secit is said that Beëlzebub was wor- ond pers. sing. pres. indic. of beon, shipped in Ekron, a city of Pales- to be. It is now obsolete, but is tine, on a moist soil in a hot used in a passage in Julius Cæsar. climate and infested with flies, (See p. 58.) against which the protection of the 5 He: i.e., the Almighty. idol was invoked.

6 luster. Give a synonym.

8

1 That ... contend. To what 6 ignominy. Here shortened (as word is this clause an adjunct ? always in Shakespeare) to ignomy. 2 dubious. See Glossary.

7 empyreal substance, fiery es8 study here has the sense of the sence. Latin original, studium, endeavor. can not fail; that is, is inde4 extort. See Glossary.

structible. 5 empire here has the force of 9 Since through experience, etc. the Latin original, imperium, su- What kind of sentence grammatipreme authority.

cally? Rhetorically?

To wage by force or guilel eternal war,
Irreconcilable to our grand Foe2
Who now triumphs, and in the excess of joy
Sole reigning holds the tyranny 4 of heaven.”

So spake the apostate Angel, though in pain,
Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair;
And him thus answered soon his bold compeer: 5

“O Prince, O chief of many thronéd Powers,
That led the embattled seraphim 6 to war
Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds
Fearless, endangered heaven's perpetual King,
And put to proof his high supremacy, —
Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate,
Too well I see and rue the dire event
That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
Hath lost us heaven, and all this mighty host
In horrible destruction laid thus low,
As far as gods and heavenly essences
Can perish; for the mind and spirit? remains
Invincible, and vigor soon returns,
Though all our glory extinct, and happy state
Here swallowed up in endless misery.
But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now

1 guile. See Glossary.

6 seraphim. What number? See 2 grand Foe. To whom is the Glossary. reference ?

7 spirit. Pronounce as one syl3 triumphs. Accent on second lable. syllable.

8 glory extinct. In reading, the tyranny, supreme rule. final y in "glory” is to be elided. compeer. Accent on last syl

" Extinct extinguished like a lable. See Glossary.

flame.

4

5

Of force 1 believe Almighty, since no less
Than such could have o'erpowered such force as ours)
Have left us this our spirit and strength entire,
Strongly to suffer and support our pains,
That we may so suffice? his vengeful ire,
Or do him mightier service as his thralls 3
By right of war, whate'er his business be,
Here in the heart of hell to work in fire,
Or do his errands in the gloomy deep?
What can it then avail, though yet we feel
Strength undiminished, or eternal being,
To undergo eternal punishment?”
Whereto with speedy words the Arch-fiend 4 replied:

“Fallen Cherub! to be weak is miserable,
Doing or suffering; but of this be sure, -
To do aught good never will be our task,
But ever to do ill our sole delight,
As being the contrary to His high will,
Whom we resist. If then his providence
Out of our evil seek to bring forth good,
Our labor must be to pervert 5 that end,
And out of good still to find means of evil;
Which oft-times may succeed, so as perhaps
Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb
His inmost counsels from their destined aim.
But see! the angry Victor hath recalled
His ministers of vengeance and pursuit

1 of force=perforce, necessarily.
2 suffice, gratify.
3 thralls. Sec Glossary.

4 Arch-fiend. Who is meant ?
5 pervert. See Glossary.
6 if I fail not, if I err not.

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