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Conversation. In the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, groups of from 5 to 10 pupils should be organized as conversation groups. The teachers should introduce familiar and dignified topics and insist on language that is clear and correct.

Extemporaneous speech.Talks in which the thought has been carefully prepared and in which the thought as well as the language and form of address are given attention and criticism by the class should be arranged for, especially in the later years of the high-school course. Among the different projects that may be successfully employed for such exercises are: Reports upon current topics, relation of personal experience, story telling, speeches of presiding officers, after-dinner speeches, and reports upon supplementary reading, etc. To make this work of the largest value the principles of arrangement should be insisted on throughout.

Debate.-Instruction and practice in debating can be made of large value in teaching English. It gives occasion for intense mental effort in analysis and encourages effective expression as do few other exercises. Debates organized by class teams with uncommitted arguments, before the school or club and occasionally in public, if carefully supervised by competent teachers, are of value. Care should be taken to secure accurate information, clear thinking, natural expression, and a reasonable attitude toward opponents. The social value of this exercise, with its lessons of mutual dependence and helpfulness, is an important by-product.

The formal address or oration was once used extensively as a rhetorical exercise and for the commencement program, but has given way to a considerable extent to the less formal speech. It is still useful, however, as a supplement to the other form, especially when occasions can be utilized that will give a special significance to the utterance. National and State holidays, birthdays of poets and famous men, or other special occasion, afford suitable opportunities for such exercises. This form of exercise should come late in the course and should be carefully supervised to secure dignified treatment of worthy themes.

IV. WORK BY GRADES.

GRADE VII. ACTIVITIES: 1. Vocalization in unison, in soft, even, resonant tones, beginning with a

hum and developing the syllables beginning with m, n, 1, and ending
with e, o, a, viz:
mē-mē-mē, nē-nē-nē, lé-lé-lē, etc.
Restrict pitch to three or four tones in the middle voice.

Use simple songs to develop flexibility. 2. Vowel practice in conjunction with vocalization to establish the correct

quality for the vowel sounds.

ACTIVITIES—Continued. 3. Articulation practice at frequent intervals, to secure completeness and

distinct utterance. 4. The speech defects of individuals should be carefully tabulated and

the proper exercises prescribed. 5. Oral reading for the proper grouping of words, with instruction in

management of voice in inflection and emphasis. 6. Memorizing appropriate selections in prose and verse. 7. Oral composition.-(a) Projecting the substance and organization of

composition, talking it. (b) Memorizing and reciting of written composition. (c) Speaking from a prepared outline. Subjects: Narrative. Reproduction of stories told to pupils. Variation method in retelling. The variation called for should be in choice of words and the arrangement of words and phrases in sentences. Stories from out. line furnished by the teacher. Stories outlined by pupils, then retold.

Stories begun by teacher and completed by pupils.
ATTAINMENT:

Reading that can be distinctly understood by the class with books closed.
Oral composition with a fair degree of fluency and coherence.
NOTE.—For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization, and the

drama, see the report on literature for this grade.

GRADE VIII. ACTIVITIES: 1. Vocalization, same as in seventh grade, extending the practice to all

combinations of consonant and vowel sounds, and extending the range

of pitch to one octare, 2. Articulation, practice same as in seventh grade. 3. Speech defects studied as in the seventh grade. 4. Oral reading continued, with emphasis laid on smoothness and flow of

sentences. 5. Memorized selections recited before the class. These may be either

prose or poetry. Attention should be given to avoiding a singing

effect. 6. Posture corrected to secure erectness and graceful pose. 7. Oral composition, as in the seventh year. Stories told by teacher, based

on models. Emphasis laid on variety of sentence length, form, and

structure. ATTAINMENT:

Reading to which the class listens with pleasure with books closed.
NOTE.- For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization, and the

drama, see the report on literature for this grade.

GRADE IX.

ACTIVITIES:

1. Vocalization, same as in eighth grade.
2. Pronunciation of words containing commonly misused sounds, as-

(a) oi sounds; e. g., oil, voice, etc.
(b) aw sounds; e. g., saw, draw, etc.
(c) ing endings.

(d) other sounds misused in the locality. 3. Enunciation of words that are commonly slurred, as in “had to " and

in " would have," etc.

ACTIVITIES–Continued. 4. Posture. Instruction and practice in poise and simple movements for

expression. 5. Memorized selections, prose or poetry, delivered before the school or

class, stress on phrasing, emphasis, and some dramatic effectiveness. 6. Oral composition. (a) Exposition on current events; clearness empha.

sized. (6) Reproduction of (1) scenes from books read, (2) myths,

Bible stories, fables, etc., emphasis laid on coherence. 7. Oral reading. (a) Poetry, with proper phrasing and emphasis to avoid

singing effect. (b) Prose, conversations with some dramatic effect, ATTAINMENT: Intelligent interpretative reading and recital of simple prose and poetry.

Voice pleasing. Utterance distinct and reasonably accurate. The habit of answering in complete sentences in all recitations. NOTE.—For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization and the

drama, see the report on literature for this grade.

GI ADET

ACTIVITIES: 1. Correcton of speech defects. Rapid utterance, incorrect movement of

tongue, rigid lips, slight movement of lower jaw, etc. Exercises for

private practice to overcome defects. 2. Phonetics. A study of the vowel and consonant sounds of the English

language, and practice in producing these sounds separately and in combination. Particular attention to pupils who lisp or have a foreign

accent. 3. Pronunciation. Instruction in syllabification, and accent. Classification

of common errors. Drill in difficult vowels and words commonly mis

pronounced. 4. Training the ear. By calling attention to pleasant and unpleasant ef

fects in connection with work in phonetics, pronunciation, voice culture,

oral reading, and speaking. 5. Cultivation of the voice. Continued exercises for resonance and range

of voice. This can be carried on in connection with work in phonetics,

reading, and oral composition. 6. Oral reading. Relating utterance to thought through grouping, inflec

tion, pauses, and emphasis. Portions of the prose and poetry used in

literature study of the class are available. 7. Posture and action. Instruction and practice in posture and action in

connection with delivery of selections and dramatization. 8. Delivery of memorized selections. Practice in conveying an author's

thought to an audience, securing and holding the attention of an audience. Attention should be given to rate of utterance, force, pitch,

and quality of voice. 9. Dramatization Analysis of character, relation of one character to an

other, interpretation of character, stage business, dramatization of scenes from Silas Marner, Browning's poems, Shakespeare's plays, or

other literature that is studied by the class. 10. Oral composition. Well pronounced sentences should be required for

all oral recitations. Class conversations, stories, experiences, reports, extemporaneous speeches, on subjects drawn from the literature study, correlated studies, school affairs, current events. Emphasis should be laid upon complete paragraphs and a coherent arrangement.

ATTAINMENT:

The ability to talk coherently in conversation, recitation, and speech.
The ability to render simple selections distinctly, interestingly, and with

simple, natural interpretative action. NOTE.--For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization, and the drama, see the report on literature for this grade.

GRADE XI. ACTIVITIES: 1. Exercises in phonetics, pronunciation, correction of speech defects,

cultivation of voice, and ear training to be continued from the tenth

grade. 2. Oral reading and delivery of memorized selections. Selections to be

studied for the appropriate interpretation of the various literary types; the lyric, the dramatic monologue, the essay, etc. The literature

studied in this grade will be found available for exercises. 3. Physical response or action. Instruction in appropriate bodily response

to thought, gesture. Kinds of gestures, their use and abuse. Exercises

for spontaneous response. 4. Dramatization. The simple dramatization of scenes from the literature

studied in this grade. The study of Shakespearean dramas and the presentation of important scenes by the members of the class. The study of the contemporary drama, with discussions. The presentation

by a selected cast of classical and popular dramas. 5. Oral composition. Extemporaneous speaking on topics assigned in ad

vance and impromptu speaking on questions of school and local interest. Instruction in speech organization. Debate. Instruction as to (a) Statement of question. (b) Definition of terms. (c) Distinction between assertion and proof. (d) The nature of evidence, debating between members of the class, divided into teams, on questions of local

interest and simple questions of State or national interest. 6. Public speaking. While the class will furnish the audience for much

of the speaking practice, public occasions should be arranged for, where those preparing themselves for work that calls for public speech will

have opportunity, after careful preparation, of speaking in public. 7. Vocabulary. Emphasis should be laid upon the importance of extending

the vocabulary by looking up words not well understood, by keeping a notebook for desirable words, and by the study of synonyms, antonyms,

and idioms. ATTAINMENT: The ability to interpret simple specimens of the different literary types.

For those planning to become public speakers, the ability to address

effectively a class, club, or other group, on simple topics. NOTE.--For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization, and

the drama see the report on literature for this grade.

GRADE XII. JCTIVITIES: 1. Exercises in phonetics, pronunciation, correction of speech defects,

voice and ear training should be continued for pupils who have special

need of it. 2. Physical response to thought and feeling studied in professional speakers

and actors. Habits of gesture and facial expression that are in force. Thought should be developed.

ACTIVITIES–Continued. 3. Oral reading and delivering memorized selections.-Aside from the liter

ature prescribed for this grade, the great orations and poems furnish

material for interpretation. 4. Dramatization.—The reading and discussion of some of the best of the

contemporary dramas, with a view to presentation of one or more of

these by a selected cast. 5. Oral composition.-Debating continued, as in the eleventh grade, with

the emphasis upon a logical development of the thought, the presentation of satisfactory evidence, and interesting delivery. Planning speeches for particular occasions; e. g., social occasions, introduction of speakers, after-dinner talks, gift presentations ; business occasions, explaining a business proposition, soliciting cooperation, a lawyer's

plea, etc. 6. Orations.—The memorizing and delivery of carefully prepared composi

tions on important themes from political or industrial life, or from literature. Instruction in choosing subjects and illustrations within the experience of the audience. Consideration of the elements of interest and how to avoid digression and tediousness. Relation between

speaker and audience. 7. Vocabularyj.-Continued emphasis upon the necessity of acquiring an

ample vocabulary. 8. Parliamentary practice.--Instruction and practice in parliamentary pro

cedure. ATTAINMENT: The ability to address an audience effectively and to make a graceful speech

for school occasions. The ability to preside satisfactorily at meetings of a class or club. NOTE.-For materials for reading aloud, classics for dramatization, and the

drama, see the report on literature for this grade.

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