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8 578. Exceptions

3168

8 579. Amendments

3170

8 580. Cross-libel

3171

$ 580a. Security by cross libelant..

3172

$ 580b. Security for damages of cross libelant..

3172

$ 580c. Abatement and revivor in admiralty..

3173

8 581. Interrogatories and discovery...

3174

$ 581a. Dismissal of libel by the libelant.

3176

8 581b. Dismissal for failure to prosecute in admiralty.

3177

$ 582. Trial

3177

8 582a. Trial by jury in admiralty.

3178

8 582b. New trials in admiralty.

3179

$ 583. Evidence in admiralty

3179

$ 583a. Depositions in admiralty

3181

$ 583b. Documentary evidence in admiralty.

3181

$ 584. Interlocutory decree and reference.

3182

$ 585. Final decree

3184

8 586. Sales

3186

$ 587. Sales as perishable

3188

$ 588. Intervenors

3189

8 589. Petition against proceeds of sale.

3190

$ 590. Priorities

3192

8 590a. Costs in admiralty

3195

$ 591. Libel of review

3195

$ 592. Appeals

3196

$ 592a. Further proof on appeal in admiralty..

3204

8 593. Limitation of the liability of shipowners.

3207

$ 593a. Vessels in respect to which limitation of liability may be

obtained

3214

$ 594. Court where petition for limitation of liability may be filed.. 3215

$ 595. Privity or knowledge of owner.......

3216

$ 596. The libel or petition for limitation of liability.

3219

$ 597. Surrender to secure limitation of liability....

3222

$ 598. Appraisement in proceedings for limitation of liability 3224

$ 599. Injunctions in proceedings to limit liability.

3226

$ 600. Monition

3227

8 601. Proofs of claim in proceedings for limitation of liability. 3228

8 602. Answer in proceedings for the limitation of liability... 3230

$ 603. Trial of proceedings for limitation of liability...

3231

$ 604. Summary proceedings to collect sailors' wages.

3233

§ 605. Proceedings in prize causes.

3239

$ 606. Proceedings on seizures..

3244

$ 607. The Pure Food and Drugs Act.

3250

$ 609. Jurisdiction in bankruptcy by consent.....

3265

$ 610. Jurisdiction of courts of bankruptcy over plenary suits. 3268

§ 611. Extra-territorial jurisdiction of courts of bankruptcy.. 3274

$ 612. Ancillary jurisdiction in bankruptcy..

3276

8 612a. Effect of bankruptcy upon State insolvency proceedings. 3279

8 613. Jurisdiction of State courts in cases affecting bankruptcy

proceedings

3280

8 614. Jurisdiction in bankruptcy as affected by residence or place

of business ..

3285

$ 615. Practice in bankruptcy proceedings. In general.

3291

$ 616. Individuals who may become bankrupts...

3293

$ 617. Corporations who may be bankrupts..

3297

$ 617a. Bankruptcy of unincorporated associations.

3299

$ 618. Partnerships in bankruptcy

3300

§ 619. Creditors who may petition for involuntary bankruptcy. 3307

8 620. Acts of bankruptcy....

3313

$ 621. Fraudulent transfers. Concealment or removal of property

as acts of bankruptcy

3314

§ 622. Transfer of property with the intent to create a preference 3316

$ 623. Preferences by legal proceedings as acts of bankruptcy... 3320

§ 624. General assignments for the benefit of creditors as acts of

bankruptcy

3322

§ 625. Appointments of receivers or trustees as acts of bankruptcy 3323

$ 626. Admission in writing as act of bankruptcy

3326

$ 627. Petitions in bankruptcy

3327

$ 627a. Schedules

3333

8 628. Amendments to petitions in bankruptcy

3335

$ 629. Process and notices to creditors

3339

$ 630. Pleadings by the respondents in bankruptcy.

3342

$ 631. Warrants of seizure

3345

$ 632. Arrest of bankrupt

3347

$ 633. Injunctions in aid of bankruptcy proceedings.

3348

8 634. Receivers in bankruptcy....

3356

$ 635. Summary orders for the payment of money or delivery of

property

3363

$ 636. Dismissal of petitions

3373

$ 637. Trials and adjudications of bankruptcy..

3375

8 637a. Setting aside an adjudication in bankruptcy.

3381

8 638. References

3385

$ 638a. Examination of bankrupt

3398

$ 638b. Examination of strangers to bankruptcy proceedings.

3402

8 639. Evidence in bankruptcy

3405

$ 640. Meetings of creditors and appointments of trustees.

3409

$ 641. Qualification of trustees

3415

$ 641a. Bankruptcy sales

3416

8 642. Duties of trustees

3420

$ 643. Title and powers of trustees..

3427
Page

FEDERAL PRACTICE

VOLUME III.

CHAPTER XXX.

PRACTICE AT COMMON LAW IN CIVIL ACTIONS.

$ 453. Common law practice. In general. Actions at common law are either civil or criminal. The Supreme Court considers the practice of the court of King's Bench in England as affording outlines for its practice at common law. In civil actions at common law the District Courts follow in general the practice in the courts of the State where they are held, except in those particulars which are regulated by Federal statute.?

The Revised Statutes provide, that "the practice, pleadings, and forms and modes of proceeding in civil causes, other than equity and admiralty causes, in the Circuit and District Courts shall conform, as near as may be, to the practice, pleadings, and forms, and modes of proceeding existing at the time in like causes in the courts of record of the State within which such Circuit or District Courts are held, any rule of court to the contrary notwithstanding." 3 A proceeding begun by an attachment is a civil cause within the meaning of the statute. So is a proceeding to establish a will under the Missouri statute.5

$ 453. 1 Supreme Court Rule 3. lar subject and prescribed a rule.” Amy v. Watertown, 130 U, S. 301, A substantial compliance with the 304, 32 L. ed. 946, 947; Bradley, J.: statute is sufficient. Hein v. West“The statute of 1872 is peremp- inghouse Air Brake Co., 168 Fed. tory, and whatever belongs to the 766. three categories of practice, plead- 2 U. S. R. S., § 914. ing, form and mode of pleadings, 3 U. S. R. S., § 914, Comp. St. must conform to the State Laws $ 1537. and the practice of the State 4 Citizens' Bank v. Farwell, C. C. Courts, except where Congress it- A., 56 Fed. 570. self has legislated upon a particu. 5 Sawyer v. White, C. C. A., 122

Fed. Prac. Vol. III-1

The phrase “as near as may be” has been held not to mean 'as near as may be possible" nor as near as may be practicable;" 6 but to devoire: upon the Federal courts the duty of construing and deciding, and to give them the power to reject any subordinate provision in such State statutes, which in their judgment would unwisely incumber the administration of the law, to tend to defeat the ends of justice in their tribunals.?

The State practice will not be so far followed as to permit a suit founded upon a right that is purely equitable to be tried upon the common law side of the court

nor,

before the Act of March 3, 1915,9 was the State practice followed so far as to permit an equitable defense 10 or an equitable set off, to be pleaded in an action at common law. 11 It has been held that an action brought in a Federal court at common law may, by consent, be transferred to the equity side of the court.12

Fed. 223, 227; Foster v. Rochester, land Boy Gold Min. Co. v. Strickley, S. D. N. Y., Jan’y. 1912.

C. C. A., 116 Fed. 852; Cook v. 6 I. & St. L. R. Co. v. Horst, 93 Foley, C. C. A., 152 Fed. 41, 52. U. S. 291, 301, 23 L. ed. 898, 901; 9 Jud. Code $ 274b, 38 St. at L. Phelps v. Oaks, 117 U. S. 236, 239, 956, ch. 90, § 2, Comp. St. $ 1251b 29 L. ed. 888, 889.

quoted infra, $ 454g. 7 1. &. St. L. R. Co. v. Horst, 93 10 Doe v. Roe, 31 Fed. 97; BenU. S. 291, 301, 23 L. ed. 898, 901; nett v. Butterworth, 11 How. 669, Phelps v. Oaks, 117 U. S. 236, 239, 13 L. ed. 859; Montijo v. Owen, 14 29 L. ed. 888, 889. See Shepard v. Blatchf. 324; Parsons v. Denis, 7 Adams, 168 U. S. 618, 42 L. ed. 602. Fed. 317; Buller v. Slidell, 43 Fed.

8 Fenn v. Holme, 21 How. 481, 16 116; Schoolfield v. Rhodes, 82 Fed. L. ed. 198; Hooper v. Scheimer, 23 153; Davis v. Davis, C. C. A., 72 How. 235, 16 L. ed. 452; Smith v. Fed. 81; Young v. Mahoning CounMcCann, 24 How. 398, 16 L. ed. ty, 51 Fed. 585, 590. See N. Pac. 714; Sheirburn v. De Cordova, 24 R. Co. v. Paine, 119 U. S. 561, 30 How. 423, 16 L. ed. 741; Strother L. ed. 513; Wilcox & Gibbs Guano v. Lucas, 6 Pet. 763, 8 L. ed. 573; Co. v. Phenix Ins. Co., 61 Fed. 199; Swayze v. Burke, 12 Pet. 11, 9 L. McManus v. Chollar, C. C. A., 128 ed. 980; Claggett v. Kilbourne, 1 Fed. 902; Tegarden v. LeMarchel, Black, 346, 17 L. ed. 213; infra, 129. Fed. 487; infra, $ 454g. $$ 454, 477; Goodyear Shoe Ma- 11 Scott v. Armstrong, 146 U. S. chinery Co. v. Dancel, C. C. A., 119 499, 36 L. ed. 1059; Waldo v. Wil. Fed. 692, in which the author was son, C. C. A., 231 Fed. 654. counsel. If the objection is not 12 U. S. v. Wells, 203 Fed. 146. raised upon the trial it will be Contra, Waldo v. Wilson, C. C. A., waived. Union Pac. Ry. Co. v. 231 Fed. 654; infra, $ 454g. Harris, C. C. A., 63 Fed. 800; High

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