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an acquiescence in or waiver of the right to object to the validity of the proviso. However this may be, it is difficult to see how a Federal question is presented by the apprehensions which the plaintiff may entertain that a resort to the commission might be futile. As already said, the railroad company must be deemed to have accepted its grant, subject to the provisions of the Constitution; and this presumption is as applicable to the method provided for exoneration from the prohibition as to the prohibition itself. We do not put the disability of the company to raise these questions upon the ground of an estoppel, strictly speaking, but upon the proposition that the company takes and holds its franchises and property subject to the conditions and limitations imposed by the state in its Constitution. Munn v. Illinois, 94 U. S. 113, 24 L. ed. 77; Davidson v. New Orleans, 96 U. S. 97, 24 L. ed. 616; Railroad Commission Cases, 116 U. S. 307, sub nom. Stone v. Farmers' Loan do T. Co. 29 L. ed. 636, 6 Sup. Ct. Rep. 334, 388, 1191. We are next to inquire whether the plaintiff in error has been exonerated from these constitutional conditions and regulations by a valid contract subsisting between it and the state. We do not understand that the counsel for the plaintiff in error claims that, by any provision of its charter, power was given to the company to fix its own rates of charge, or to discriminate in its rates between different places on its line of railroad, and that the constitutional prohibition as to the long and short haul, subsequently enacted, operates, if enforced, as a withdrawal or defeat of that power. No right, in express terms or by necessary implication, is pointed in the company's charter granting to the Louisville & Nashe ville Railroad Company the privilege of dis- criminating in its tariff of tolls or charges F in favor of longer over shorter "distance points. On February 14, 1856, there was passed a general act reserving to the state an unlimited power to amend all charters and amendments thereafter granted. Ky. Laws 1855–6, chap. 148. It is true that an amendment to plaintiff in error's charter was granted by an act passed February 28, 1860, by § 1 of which the board of directors were granted authority, “in their adjustment of a tariff for freight and passengers, to make discrimination in favor of freights and passage for long over short distances.” But it does not seem to be contended that by this amendment of 1860 an irrevocable contract was effected between the state and the company, which could not be affected by a subsequent constitutional enactment. It is scarcely necessary to argue or to cite authority for the proposition that a contract of exemption from future general legislation, either by a constitutional provision or by an act of the legislature, cannot be deemed to exist unless it is given expressly, or unless it follows by an implication equally clear with express words.

But what is claimed is that a railroad company, by mere force of its legal organization and the construction of its road, has a necessarily implied power to fix reasonable rates, and especially has the right to differ rates when competition exists from rates applicable where there is no competition. Such rights, it is said, are essential to enable the company to engage in perfectly legitimate business, and hence that an interference therewith, even by a constitutional enactment, not only deprives the company of its property, or the reasonable use of it, but also impairs the obligation of the contract implied in the grant of its charter. So far as the question of an implied contract is concerned, we perceive no distinction between the case of a railroad company incorporated before and that of one incorporated after the constitutional enactment in question. As it has been said of the one so it may be said of the other, that the charter is taken and held subject to the power of the state to regulate and control the grant in the interest of the public. In Pennsylvania R. Co. v. Miller, 132 U. S. 75, 33 L. ed. 267, 10 Sup. Ct. Rep. 34, it was held that neither the original charter of the railroad company nor subsequent acts to conferring additional privileges constituted; *such a contract between the state and the * company as exempted the latter from the operation of the subsequently adopted Constitution of Pennsylvania; that a constitutional provision, as applied to the company; in respect to cases afterwards arising, did not impair the obligation of any contract between it and the state; and that the company took its charter subject to the general law of the state and to such changes as might be made in such general law, and subject to future constitutional provision and future general legislation, since, there was no prior contract with it exempting it from such enactments. The same principle was announced in Louisville Water Co. v. Clark, 143 U. S. 1, 36 L. ed. 55, 12 Sup. Ct. Rep. 346; and in Louisville & N. R. Co. v. Kentucky, 161 U. S. 677, 40 L. ed. 849, 16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 714. In the absence, then, of any express prior contract between the state and the company, exempting the latter from future constitutional enactments, and without conceding that even such a contract would avail to relieve the company from constitutional changes in the exercise of the general police power of the state, it is sufficient to say that we do not find in § 218 of the Constitution of Kentucky any impairment of an existin contract between the state and the plaint in error. The final contention, that § 218 of the Constitution of Kentucky operates as an interference with interstate commerce, and is therefore void, need not detain us long. It is plain that the provision in question does not in terms embrace the case of interstate traffic. It is restricted in its regulation to those who own or operate a railroad within the state, and the long and short distances mentioned are evidently distances

• commerce;

upon the railroad line within the state. The particular case before us is one involving only the transportation of coal from one point in the state of Kentucky to another by a corporation of that state.

It may be that the enforcement of the state regulation forbidding discrimination in rates in the case of articles of a like kind carried for different distances over the same line may somewhat affect commerce generally; but we have frequently held that such e a result is too remote and indirect to be E regarded as an interference with interstate that the interference" with the commercial power of the general government, to be unlawful, must be direct, and not the merely incidental effect of enforcing the police powers of a state. New York, L. E. & W. R. Co. v. Pennsylvania, 158 U. S. 431, 439, 39 L. ed. 1043, 1045, 15 Sup. Ct. Rep. 896; Henderson Bridge Co. v. Kentucky, 166 U. S. 150, 41 L. ed. 953, 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 532.

A discussion of this subject will be found in the opinion of this court in Louisville & N. It. Co. v. Kentucky, 161 U. S. 701, 40 L. ed. 859, 16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 714, where the same conclusion was reached.

The judgment of the Court of Appeals is affirmed.

(183 U. S. 263) THE KENSINGTON.

Carriers—steamship ticket stipulations against public policy—conflict of laws.

1. Restrictions of the liabllity of a steamship company for its own negligence or failure of duty toward a passenger, being against the public policy enforced by the courts of the United States, will not be upheld, though the ticket was issued and accepted in a foreign country and contained a condition making it subject to the law thereof, which sustains such stipulations.

2. A stipulation in a steamship passenger's ticket, which compels him to value his baggage at a certain sum, far less than it is worth, or, in order to have a higher value put upon it, to subject it to the provisions of the Harter act, by which the carrier would be exempted from all liability therefor from er. rors in navigation or management of the vessel or other negligence, is unreasonable and in conflict with public policy.

8. An arbitrary limitation of 250 francs for the baggage of any steamship passenger, unaccompanied by any right to increase the amount by adequate and reasonable proportional payment, is vold as against public pol

icy. [No. 15.]

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Statement by Mr. Justice White: ; •The libel by which this action was com-menced sought to recover the value of passengers' baggage which it was alleged the ship had wrongfully failed to deliver. The facts essential to be borne in mind, in order to approach the questions arising for decision, are as follows: The International Navigation Company, a New Jersey corporation, on December 6, 1897, at the office of its Paris agency, issued to Mrs. and Miss Bleecker, the wife and daughter of an officer of the United States Navy, a steamer ticket for a voyage from Antwerp to New York on the Kensington, a steamer in the control of the company, advertised to sail from Antwerp on December the 11th. The ticket was delivered to Mrs. Bleecker, who at the time made part payment of the passage money. The baggage of the two passengers was shipped by rail to Antwerp, to the care of the agent of the company there. Mrs. Bleecker, at Antwerp, on the 10th of December, paid the remainder of the passage money, and it was entered on the ticket. The baggage having in the meanwhile been received, the charges which the agent at Antwerp had advanced were refunded and a receipt was issued. It was stated therein that the value of the baggage was unknown, and that it was shipped subject to the conditions contained in the company’s steamer ticket and bill of lading. Mrs. Bleecker and her daughter embarked, and the steamer sailed on the 11th of December. The ticket was subsequently taken up by the purser. The baggage was stowed in what was known as number 2, upper steerage deck. The voyage was an exceptionally rough one, the ship, encountering heavy seas and winds, rolled from 38 to 45 degrees on either side during the height of the gale, and was obliged to heave to for about fifteen hours. On arrival at New York the baggage was found to be totally destroyed. By constant shifting it had been reduced to an almost unrecognizable mass, was commingled with debris of broken china and straw, and covered with water. The first was occasioned by stowing crates of china in the same compartment. The presence of the water was of explained by the fact that an exhaust pipe: which passed through the compartment"had been broken by the shifting of the contents of the compartment, and hence the exhaust escaped into the compartment. There is no possible view which can be taken of the facts by which the loss of the baggage was brought about, by which the ship could be held responsible if the steamer ticket was in and of itself a complete contract, and all the conditions or exceptions legibly printed on the face thereof were lawful. The ticket was signed by the agent of the company at Paris, was countersigned by the agent at Antwerp, but was not signed by either Mrs. Bleecker or her daughter. One of the conditions printed on the ticket provided that there should be no liability to each passenger, “under any circumstances,” beyond the sum of 250 francs,

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“at which such gage is hereby valued,” unless an increased value be declared and an additional sum paid as provided by the condition. There was no proof tending to show that at the time the ticket was issued the attention of Mrs. Bleecker or her daughter was called to the fact that it embodied exceptional stipulations relieving the company from liability, or that such conditions were agreed to, except in so far as a meeting of minds on the subject may be inferred from the fact of the delivery of the ticket by the company; and its acceptance, and that, it contained on its face, in small but legible type, among others, the stipulations which are relied upon. The testimony of Mrs. Bleecker and her daughter was that when the ticket was received it was put aside without reading it, and that it was not subsequently examined before it was delivered to the ship's officer. The district court held that the loss of the baggage was attributable to bad stowage; that the ticket and the conditions printed on it were a contract binding upon the parties, so far as the conditions were lawful. The conditions generally relieving from liability for negligence were held to be void, but the stipulation as to the value of the baggage was held valid; recovery was allowed only for the equivalent of 250 francs to each. 88 Fed. 331. On appeal the circuit court of appeals for the second circuit affirmed the judgment. 36 C. C. A. 533, 94 Fed. 885. The case by the allowance of a writ of certiorari is here for review.

* Mr. Roger Foster for petitioners. Mr. Henry Galbraith Ward for respondent.

Mr. Justice White, after making the foregoing statement, delivered the opinion of the court: The district court held, although the condition of the weather might account for the shifting of the bag , that result could also have arisen from its bad stowage; and, in the absence of all proof by the ship that the baggage had been properly stowed, when such proof was peculiarly within its reach, the loss must be presumed to have arisen from the imperfect stowage. The circuit court of appeals, while in effect eeing to this conclusion, in addition found that there was proof in the record tending to sustain the conclusion that the baggage had been improperly stowed, and that no proof even tending to rebut this testimony had been offered by the company. As in the argument at bar the conclusion of the court below on this subject was not seriously questioned, we content, ourselves with saying that, as a matter of fact, we find them to be sustained, and therefore pass from their further consideration. The loss of the baggage being, then, attributable to improper stowage, the question is, Was the vessel relieved from the consequence of its fault by the exceptions

contained in the passen ticket? The district court decided “that a ticket of the character above described for a transatlantic passage is a unilateral contract, and, like a bill of lading, is binding upon the person who receives it, so far as its provisions are reasonable and valid.” In other words, the court held, although there was no proof of the meeting of the minds of the parties upon the subject of exceptional limitations to be imposed upon the contract of carriage, the receipt and retention of the ticket implied a unilateral contract embracing the exceptions found in legible characters on the face of the ticket. And being thus a part of the express and written contract, the exceptions would be enforced, provided they were just and reasonable. The circuit court of appeals in effect approved to these views of the district court. § *While, apparently, the question whether * there was a unilateral contract necessarily arises first for consideration, such is not the case when the situation of the record is taken into view. For should we, in disposing of this question, determine that the rulings of the court below as to the unilateral contract were correct, we would not thereby be relieved from deciding whether the conditions embodied in the contract were valid. On the other hand, should we conclude that the conditions relied on were void, there will be no occasion to determine the question of contract. We hence invert the logical order of consideration, and first come to determine whether the conditions enumerated in the ticket relieved from the responsibility otherwise resulting from the bad stowage of the baggage. In doing so we shall, of course, assume, for the purpose of this branch of the case only, that the conditions relied upon were a part of a unilateral contract, and were binding as far as they were just and reasonable. It is apparent if the carrier, in transporting the baggage, was governed by the act of February 13, 1893, designated as the Harter act, any provision in the ticket exempting from liability for fault in loading or stowage was void because inhibited by the express provisions of the statute. 27 Stat. at L. 445, chap. 105. As, however, the view which we take of the conditions expressed in the ticket will be equally decisive, whether or not the Harter act concerns the carriage of passengers and , their baggage, it becomes unnecessary to intimate any opinion as to whether the provisions of the act in question apply to such contracts. The exceptions found on the face of the ticket upon which the carrier depends are as follows: “(c) The shipowner or agent are not under any circumstances liable for loss, death, injury, or delay to the passenger or his baggage arising from the act of God, the public enemies, fire, robbers, thieves of whatever kind, whether on board the steamer or not, perils of the seas, rivers, or navigation, accidents to or of machinery, boilers, or steam, collisions, strikes, arrest, or restraint of princes, courts of law, rulers, or people, or from any act, neglect, or default of the

shipowner's servants, whether on board the or steamer or not, or on board any other vessel § belonging to the shipowner, either in mat* ters aforesaid " or otherwise howsoever. Neither the shipowner nor the agent is under any circumstances, or for any cause whatever or however arising, liable to an amount exceeding 250 frances for death, injury, or delay of or to any passenger carried under this ticket. The shipowner will use all reasonable means to send the steamer to sea in a seaworthy state and wellfound, but does not warrant her seaworthiIle:SS. “ (d) The shipowner or agent shall not under any circumstances be liable for any loss or delay of or injury to passengers' baggage carried under this ticket, beyond the sum of 250 francs, at which such baggage is hereby valued, unless a bill of lading or receipt be given therefor, and freight paid in advance on the excess value at the rate of 1 o cent, or its equivalent, in which case the shipowner shall only be responsible according to the terms of the shipowner's form of cargo bill of lading, in use from the port of departure.” It is settled in the courts of the United States that exemptions limiting carriers from responsibility for the negligence of themselves or their servants are both unjust and unreasonable, and will be deemed as wanting in the element of voluntary assent; and, besides, that such conditions are in conslict with public policy. This doctrine was announced so long ago, and has been so frequently reiterated, that it is elementary. We content ourselves with referring to the cases of the Baltimore & O. S. W. R. Co. v. Voigt, 176 U. S. 498, 505, 507, 44 L. ed. 560, 565, 20 Sup. Ct. Rep. 385, and Knott v. Botany Worsted Mills, 179 U. S. 69, 71, 45 L. ed. 90, 93, 21 Sup. Ct. Rep. 30, where the previously adjudged cases are referred to, and the principles by them expounded are restated. True it is that by the act of February 13, 1893 (27 Stat. at L. 445, chap. 105), known as the Harter act, already adverted to, the general rule just above stated was modified so as to exempt vessels, when engaged in the classes of carriage coming within the terms of the statute, from liability for negligence in certain particulars. But while this statute changed the general rule in cases which the act embraced, it left such rule in all other cases unimpaired. Indeed, in view a of the well-settled nature of the general rule # at the time the .statute, was adopted, it o must result that" legislative approval was by clear implication given to the general rule as then existing in all cases where it was not changed. Testing the exemptions found in the ticket by the rule of public policy, it is apparent that they were void, since they unequivocally sought to relieve the carrier from the initial duty of furnishing a seaworthy vessel for all neglect in loading or stowing, and, indeed, for any and every fault of commission or omission on the part of the carrier or his servants. And seek

ing to accomplish these results, it is equally plain that the conditions were void if their legality be considered solely with reference to the modifications of the general rule created by the act of 1893. Knott v. Botany Worsted Mills, 179 U. S. 69, 45 L. ed. 90, 21 Sup. Ct. Rep. 30. As, however, the ticket was finally countersigned in Belgium, and one of the conditions printed on its face provides that “all questions arising hereunder are to be settled according to the Belgium law, with reference to which this contract is made,” it is insisted that such law should be applied, as proof was offered showing that the law of Belgium authorized the conditions. The contention amounts to this: Where a contract is made in a foreign country, to be executed at least in part in the United States, the law of the foreign country, either by its own force or in virtue of the agreement of the contracting parties, must be enforced by the courts of the United States, even although to do so requires the violation of the public policy of the United States. To state the proposition is, we think, to answer it. It is true, as a general rule, that the lea, loci governs, and it is also true that the intention of the parties to a contract will be sought out and enforced. But both these elementary principles are subordinate to and qualified by the doctrine that neither by comity nor by the will of contracting parties can the public policy of a country be set at naught. Story, Confl. L. §§ 38, 244. While, as said in Knott v. Botany Worsted Mills, the previous decisions of this court have not called for the application of the rule of public policy to the precise question here arising, nevertheless, that it must be here enforced is substantially determined by the previous adjudications of this court. In Liverpool do G. W. Steam Co. v. Phenia Ins. Co. 129 U. S. 397, 32 L. ed. 788, 9 Sup. Ct. Rep. 469, s the question arose whether conditions ex-Fi empting a "carrier from responsibility for * loss caused by the neglect of himself or his servants could be enforced in the courts of the United States, the bill of lading having been issued in New York by a British ship for goods consigned to England. Despite the fact that conditions exempting from responsibility for loss arising from negligence were valid by the laws of New York, and would have been upheld in the courts of that state, it was decided that, in view of the rule of public policy applied by the courts of the United States, effect would not be given to the conditions. In the very nature of things, the premise, upon which this decision must rest, is controlling here, unless it be said that a contract made in a foreign country, to be executed in part in the United States, is more potential to overthrow the public policy, enforced in the courts of the United States, than would be a similar contract, validly made, in one of the states of the Union. Nor is the suggestion that because there is no statute expressly prohibiting such contracts, and because it is assumed no offense against morality is committed in making them, therefore they should

be enforced, despite the settled rule of public policy to the contrary. The existence of the rule of public policy, not the ultimate causes upon which it may depend, is the criterion. The precise question has been carefully considered and decided in the district courts of the United States. In The Guildhall, 58 Fed. 796, it was held that a stipulation in a bill of lading issued at Rotterdam on goods destined to New York, exempting the carrier from liability for negligence, would not be enforced in the courts of the United States, although such a condition was valid under the law of Holland. In The Glenmavis, 69 Fed. 472, the same rule was applied to a bill of lading issued in Germany by a British ship, for goods consigned to Philadelphia. Indeed, by implication the question is controlled by statute. We have previously pointed out, under the assumption that the Harter act does not apply to the o: of the baggage of a passenger, that such law in effect affirms the rule of public policy as previously existing in the cases, where no change was made. ... But that act expressly prohibits carriers en§§. in the business which it regulates F from contracting," even in a foreign country, for a shipment to the United States, to relieve themselves from negligence in cases where the statute does not do so. Knott v. Botany Worsted Mills, 179 U. S. 69, 45 L. ed. 90, 21 Sup. Ct. Rep. 30. The theory, then, by which alone the conditions, relied on in this case can be enforced, despite the public policy which governs, in the courts of the United States, reduces itself to this: Carriers who transact a class of business where they are exempt by law, in many cases, from the consequences of the neglect of themselves or their servants, may not overthrow public policy by contracts made in a foreign country for a shipment to the United States; but carriers who are in no case exempt by the law from the consequence of their neglect may do so. But this amounts in last analyses to this: , The lesser the immunity from negligence the greater the power to avoid the consequences of negligence. The general exemptions from responsibility for negligence which the ticket embodies being controlled by the rule enforced in the courts of the United States, and being therefore void, because against public policy, we come to consider the particular provisions contained in the ticket with reference to the value of the baggage and the limit of recovery, if any, arising therefrom. In New York C. & H. R. R. Co. v. Fraloff, 100 U. S. 24, 27, 25 L. ed. 531, 533, it was said: “It is undoubtedly competent for carriers of passengers, by specific regulations, distinctly brought to the knowledge of the passenger, which , are reasonable in their character and not inconsistent with any statute or their duties to the public, to protect themselves against liability, as insurers, for baggage exceeding, a fixed amount in value, except upon additional compensation proportioned to the risk. And in order §.

such regulations may be practically effective, and the carrier advised of the full extent of its responsibility, and, consequently, of the degree of precaution necessary upon its part. it may rightfully require, as a condition precedent to any contract for the transportation of baggage, information from the passenger as to its value; and if the value thus disclosed exceeds that which the et passenger may reasonably demand to be: transported as baggage" without extra com-pensation, the carrier, at its option, can make such additional charge as the risk fairly justifies.” In Hart v. Pennsylvania R. Co. 112 U. S. 331, 28 L. ed. 717, 5 Sup. Ct. Rep. 151, the facts were as follows: A bill of lading was issued for a number of horses, and the instrument was signed, not only by the carrier, but also by the shipper. By the express provisions of the bill of lading the right to recover for each horse was limited to a specified sum. The horses were injured while in transit by the neglect of the employees of the company, and recovery was sought for a much larger amount than the value fixed in the bill of lading. The court in its opinion stated that it must be assumed that the rate of freight and the declared valuation had a due relation one to the other, and that if a greater value had been declared, a higher and not unreasonable char for the carriage would have been made. It was conceded that the carrier was liable for the value of the horses as stated in the bill of lading, but the controversy was whether the limit affixed in the bill of lading should not be disregarded and a much larger sum, which it was asserted was the actual value of the horses, be awarded on the ground that the loss was begotten through the negligence of the carrier. The court, after reviewing the prior cases and explicitly reaffirming the doctrine that conditions were void, because against public policy, by which a carrier was relieved from the consequences of the negligence of himself or his servants, said (p. 340, L. ed. p. 721, Sup. Ct. Rep. p. 156): “The limitation as to value has no tendency to exempt from liability for negligence. It does not induce want of care. It exacts from the carrier the measure of care due to the value agreed on. The carrier is bound to respond in that value for negligence. The compensation for carriage is based on that value. The shipper is estopped from saying that the value is greater. The articles have no greater value, for the purposes of the contract of transportation, between the parties to that contract. The carrier must respond for negligence up to that value. It is just and reasonable that such a contract, fairly entered into, and where there is no deceit practised on the shipper, shoulde be upheld. There is no violation of public; policy. On the contrary, it would be un-? just and unreasonable, and would be repugnant to the soundest principles of fair dealing and of the freedom of contracting, and thus in conflict with T. policy, if a shipper should be allowed to reap the benefit of

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