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VI

Four years ago, when the first edition of this work. appeared, I made the great mistake of not explaining minutely how the lessons were intended to be given. The one or two school-teachers to whom I timidly submitted it, missing the accustomed translations, reading exercises, and division into daily lessons, waved it aside after the merest glance, pronouncing it useless for schools. At that time my experience of teaching English in this country was limited to Pensionats, of German schools I knew nothing. Therefore, having no opportunity of proving the contrary, I meekly accepted the verdict of the wiseacres, though I confess I did not quite see why what was good for a class of girls in a Pensionat should not be good for a class. of girls in school.

Since that time I have had three years' experience of school-teaching. I have had five-and-twenty little beginners before me, and I no longer yield to superior judgment. I maintain my opinion boldly, and repeat it, namely, that this book is equally suitable for all learners, of all ages and all conditions; that this slender volume, in the hands of a thoroughly competent teacher, (and an incompetent teacher will not be successful with any book,) contains all that is required for teaching the foreigner English.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK.

SCHEME OF LESSONS.

First Lesson.

Open the book at page 40. The teacher begins by reading the present tense of the verb "to have", the pupil repeating it after him, at first slowly, then easily and naturally. The other tenses follow. Take care not to let the pupil accent like this: I shall have, I have had, I shall have had, as every foreigner, left to himself, will assuredly do. There is no reason why he should not be taught to lay the stress on the right syllable from the very first lesson. In reading the verb, lay the chief stress upon the pronoun in this way: I have,

VII

you have, he has, because it represents the emphasized subject in a longer sentence, for instance:

If this hereafter:

My father has the book.

The gloves are on the table.

is not pointed out, the pupil will read My father has the book.

The gloves are on the table.

Every teacher has heard this, I am sure.

After reading the eight tenses of the verb "to have" again and again until the pupil almost knows them, turn to the days of the week and the months of the year, (page 1) the pupil always repeating the words after the teacher, first one at a time, then two or three at a time. Here we meet with the much talked-of "th" (in "Thursday") but do not talk about it — repeat it very slowly ten, twenty times running, sing it, sing "Thur, Thur, Thur", to the tune of "Three Blind Mice" once through slowly, and I defy anyone not to catch it. I have never had a pupil who could not pronounce "th". In fact, to sing it, making one lo-0-0-0-ong note of it, is a splendid way to teach any syllable, difficult to pronounce.

Next come the numbers, cardinal and ordinal, (page 2 and 3); the repeating of ordinal numbers is the best possible practice for the "th". Then repeat the verb again, then read several times the remaining words from the beginning of the book to the middle of page 3.

For the remainder of the lesson the teacher can put questions like the following, the pupil referring to the book if necessary for the words to answer with. 1. Have you had a lesson to-day? (Yes, I have had

a....

.).

2. How many lessons have you had to-day?

3. Have you an English lesson on Monday? 4. What day have you your English lesson? 5. Had you a lesson yesterday?

6. Shall we have a lesson to-morrow?

The pupil must of course be made to answer with a whole sentence, and not only with "Yes" or "No".

There is not a word in the above examples which the pupil has not had in the lesson, and care should be taken not to introduce one. It is only necessary to

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alter a word here and there to make fifty similar examples. This I leave to the teacher.

For the next time the pupil will memorize what he has more than half learnt during the lesson.

2nd Lesson.

Read the verb "to have".

Read the verb "to be". (p. 42.)
Repeat the days, months, numbers.

Repeat the conversation of Lesson I.

Dictate a few sentences of the conversation of Lesson I.

Read several times the words on pages 3, 4, the family. Then comes the following conversation: 1. My father is a man.

Is your father a man? 2. My mother is a woman. Is your mother a woman? 3. My brother is a boy. Is your brother a boy? 4. Has your mother a sister?

5. How many aunts have you?

6. Is your aunt a lady or a gentleman?

The amount of time devoted to these questions depends entirely upon the intelligence of the pupil.

3rd Lesson.

Read the verb to have".

Read the verb "to be".

Read the verbs "can", "may", "must".

Repeat the days, months, numbers, family.
Dictate a few sentences from last conversation.
Read several times the words on page 4 on the

parts of the body.

Then Conversation:

Where is your hair?

1. My hair is on my head.
2. My nose is on my face.
How many noses have you?

Where is your nose?

3. My teeth are in my mouth. Where are your teeth? 4. My nose is between my two cheeks. Where...? 5. What is on your head?

6. What is in your mouth?

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4th Lesson.

Read verbs "have", "be", "can", "may", "must". Read the regular verb "paint" (p. 50) entirely omitting the progressive form till the lesson on page 57 is reached.

Read page 65--66. "S" oder "Es".

Read the list of regular verbs on page 68-69. Make the pupil translate into English a quantity of sentences, such as: - Er wäscht, wir suchten, er wird reden, du hast gefragt, wir würden wohnen, the list open before him.

Dictation from last conversation.
Read words on page 5.

Conversation.

1. Are your hands dry or wet?

2. Is the old man stout or thin?

3. Is your younger brother married or single? 4. Are your little sisters pale or rosy?

5. Will your father be angry or pleased?

5th Lesson.

with

Read verbs "have", "be", "can", "may", "must",

"paint".

Read page 56 on "do", (1st half only).

Read verb "do I paint?"

Make the pupil translate a quantity of little sentences using the reg. verbs on page 68 interrogatively, such as: wäscht er? suchten wir? wird er reden? hast du gefragt? etc.

Dictation from last conversation.

Read words on page 6, beginning "House

flower-bed".

Conversation.

1. I live in a house. Do you live in a house? 2. Does your little sister live in a house?

3. Have you a kitchen in your house?

4. Did my sister show you the drawing-room?

5. Did you ask your mother to look at the flowerbeds in my garden?

6. Did the boys fetch the key of the cupboard?

[blocks in formation]

Study page 56 (2nd half).

Read verb "I do not paint" (page 52.)

Make the pupil translate a quantity of sentences using the regular verbs on page 68 negatively, such as: er wäscht nicht, wir suchten nicht, er wird nicht reden, etc.

Dictation from last conversation.

Read words on page 6 beginning "town - motor".
Conversation:

1. Have you been to the new station?

2. Where is the old theatre?

3. What colour is the round church behind the prison?

4. Did you ask the old man where the cabs were? 5. Will he be able to show me the shop where you looked at the keys?

6. Will the boys be allowed to look for the girls?

7th Lesson.

Read verb "I am painted" (page 54).

Make the pupil translate a quantity of sentences using the regular verbs on page 68 in the passive form, such as: wird es gewaschen? wir wurden gesucht, sie wird geholt werden, etc.

Dictation from last conversation.

Read words on page 6 beginning "dress -- tie”.
Conversation.

1. Where is my new dress?

2. What colour was the ribbon on your hat?

3. In what room did you look for my umbrella?

4. What day did you wash my white gloves?

5. When did you fetch my muff out of my bedroom? 6. How many buttons have you on your boots?

8th Lesson.

Read the irregular verbs on page 68.

Devote a few minutes every lesson to verb drill. (The oral translation into English of small sentences using the verbs in every possible form).

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