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the facts, he displayed unexampled discrimination. His relation to modern critics, in reference to the document and mythical hypotheses is that he anticipated many of the arguments of their advocates, and applied them with a discernment and force which they never surmised. Mr. Gould, referring to the Elohist and Jehovist part of the documentary hypothesis, shows very clearly not only that Swedenborg understood that hypothesis, but that he had treated of this particular subject at least eight years before the appearance of Astruc's work, which is supposed to have contained its first announcement. The date, when the first volume of the 6 Arcana” was published, together with passages from it, and the “ Adversaria,” are adduced in proof of this conclusion. The use, however, which Swedenborg makes of this discovery, is very different from that made by other scholars. So, also, the mythical theory, which insists upon the mythical character of the early history of mankind, was well known to Swedenborg, and by him it was treated

fact necessary for Biblical criticism, long before it was recognised by other Christian scholars. This is evident from numerous passages in his writings, and especially from his exposition of the early chapters of Genesis. This fact certainly establishes a relation betwen him and modern critics, but his use of the fact is so divergent, that at this point he entirely separates from them. Nor is his relation to the orthodox and latitudinarian views to be denied. The orthodox contend for the literal accuracy of all the historical Scriptures: the latitudinarians admit some exceptions, and insist upon the presence of a human element in their composition. Swedenborg helps the former to discriminate, and teaches the latter where to stop. He admits that much truth exists in each view, and, consequently, his criticisms relate to both schools, but do not go the length of either. He shows where the historical accounts of the Scriptures begin, and in what the human element consists, and there the agreement ends; for while they suppose the divinity and inspiration of the Scriptures to be in the letter, he asserts that there is nothing holy in the mere historicals of the Word, and maintains that all its sanctity resides in its spiritual sense, and that the letter is so constructed that all its subjects should be representative of divine and spiritual things.

The NEXT CHAPTER, which is the last, after stating more fully this law, as it is taught by Swedenborg and accepted by the New Church, undertakes its application to the historical Scriptures. And here, we are sure, the reader will experience pleasure and edification in seeing how readily, by the application of this law, the many difficulties which have distressed preceding critics, melt away, and what beautiful truths are fonnd to take their place. Of course they are treated critically, and, therefore, will require careful attention to appreciate the points intended to be taught. It may also be observed that although the book is written in the true interests of the New Church, it is specially intended for students not yet within her pale. Want of space compels us to forego the pleasure of quoting any example at length. The follow

ing exposition of a supposed historical disagreement, somewhat abridged, will be suggestive, and must suffice

“The account the announcement of the Lord's nativity, according to Matthew, was made to the magi, or wise men, by means of a star ; and according to Luke, by an angel to the shepherds (Matt. ii.; Luke ii.). These two relations, though in the letter, it may not perhaps be difficult to account for them by considering them not as two discordant accounts of the same transaction, but rather as two independent events related by different evangelists, admit, however, it appears to us, upon our principles, of a far more satisfactory explanation.”

According to the New Church view, therefore, these two occurrences are both to be regarded as instances of spiritual vision.'

The author then proceeds to treat of appearances in the spiritual world, and then observes :

“Now what we desire to show by all this is, that the appearances to the magi and to the shepherds, at the time of our Lord's birth, and described, one in Matthew and the other in Luke, were in all probability of this character, and that they in fact fell under two kinds of spiritual vision, above specified respectively. In other words, they were the results of the opening of the spiritual sight of the magi and of the shepherds : in the case of the former, into the world of spirits or intermediate region of the spiritual world, in which the angelic societies appear to its inhabitants, as we have said as stars in the firmament above their heads; and that of the latter into heaven itself and to a view of the angels and celestial inhabitants, whose discourse also they were permitted to hear. The relation between the two accounts, or rather their actual coincidence in several important respects, will thus become apparent; for it will thus be evident that the two visions were in reality similar, being in fact a view of the same spiritual object from different planes or points of view. The star that appeared to the magi was really as much a company of angels, though seen from a lower spiritual standpoint, as the angel and the multitude of the heavenly host which the shepherd beheld.”—pp. 201-204.

Mr Gould has done good service to the literature of the Church by writing this book. It would be easy and a pleasure to extend our notice of it, but enough has been said to indicate its character, and to show our appreciation of the ability and reading which have been employed in its production. The New Church has no other book which goes over similar ground to the same extent; and it is cordially recommended, not only to those who have pleasure in critical studies, but to the general reader who desires information on the obscure and difficult subjects of the Bible, and which scholars, from time to time, undertake to elucidate and simplify.

R.

“When man is in truth from good, the truth which is of greatest faith is in the middle, and thence succeed the truths which are of lesser faith, and at length those which are of doubtful faith, and in the borders round about are falsities which yet are not in a series with truths, nor do they stand erect to heaven, as the truth of good, but are bended downwards, and look towards hell, so far as they come forth from evil: but when falsity usurps the place of truth, the order is inverted, and truths go away to the sides, and constitute the circuits, whilst falsities occupy the middle.”—A. C. 9164.

Miscellaneous.

THE PAPACY.

EVENTS crowd each other in the history of the papal Church. The deepseated hatred felt towards the Catholic priesthood in some parts of France, has caused great alarm for their safety and led to the imprisonment of some of the clergy, by the political party now struggling to maintain its ascendancy in the city of Paris. The hope of the interference of other nations for the restoration of the temporal authority of the Pope seems doomed to bitter disappointinent. Catholic countries are not in a position to interfere in the political affairs of Italy. France and Austria, Spain and Portugal, are fully occupied with the affairs of their own internal governments. They may sympathize with the Pope in his afflictions, but beyond that they can do nothing. In this constrained feebleness of the natural supporters of his throne, the friends of the papacy cast wistful eyes to the Protestant powers. Gerinany, which has risen to the highest place in military prowess, has been invoked to lend her mighty aid in this hopeless struggle. Attempts have also been made in our own country to induce the Government to interfere in this question. In the Berlin Chamber of Deputies, an amendment to the address in reply to the Emperor's speech, was moved by the Catholic deputies, proposing the intervention of Germany in favour of the Pope. This amendment was resisted with vehemence, and rejected by a majority of 243 against 63.

In the midst of his afflictions, some crumbs of comfort are offered his holiness in an address of condolence from the Catholics of England. This address was conveyed to Rome by a deputation of noblemen and gentlemen, who, reaching Rome on Saturday evening, April 1st, were invited to attend service the following day in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican. It was Palm-Sunday, and each received from the hands of the Pope palm-branches plaited and ornamented in the usual manner. On the 4th, the address, accompanied by a contribution of Peter's pence of 63, 125 lire, was presented and acknowledged by an address and benediction. On the effect produced on the deputation by this address

and blessing the Observatore Romana says—“It is easy to imagine with what sentiments were received the words of the revered Pontiff, and how lively was the emotion depicted on the faces of these severe islanders.”

These proceedings on the part of devoted members of the papal community may soothe the troubles of the Pope, but they do nothing towards restoring his authority. Meantime a more formidable enemy thau Victor Emanuel has appeared in the quarter where he was most anxiously looking for help. Dr. Döllinger, who has long held an eminent place in the Catholic Church in Germany, has refused to accept the new dogmas of the universal power and infallibility of the Pope ; and has written a long and able letter to the Archbishop of Munich, asking that he may have an audience at an approaching meeting of German bishops at Fulda. Should such audience be granted, he is prepared to prove, firstly, " that the fathers of the Church have all, without exception, explained the texts upon which the new articles of faith are based in a totally different meaning to the new decrees ; secondly, that the assertion that the new doctrine of the universal power of the pope over every single Christian, and of papal infallibility in decisions of the Church in matters of faith, has been generally, or at least nearly generally, believed and taught, is based upon an entire misconception of the traditions of the Church for the first thousand years, and upon an entire distortion of her history; and that it is in direct contradiction to the plainest facts and testimonies ; thirdly, he is ready to prove that the bishops of the Latin Church, who formed the immense majority at Rome, were, with their clergy, already led astray by the classbooks from which they took their ideas during their seminary education, since the proofs given in these books are for the most part false, invented, or distorted. And he further engages to prove that these new decrees are in glaring contradiction to the decisions of other general councils and incompatible with the constitutions of the Siates of Europe. Of the reception of these decrees of the council, he says, “Up to

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this day not a single one, even of those who have signed a declaration of submission, has said to me that he is really convinced of the truth of them. All my friends and acquaintances confirm me in this experience; 'not a single person believes in it,' is what I hear day by day from all lips.'

And what is the answer to this declaration ? “The Times correspondent at Vienna states that the Archbishop has published a pastoral letter, in which he asserts that there was no question at all at issue, for the question has been decided by an (Ecumenical Council; and that historical criticism cannot be placed above the authority of the Church.". The boasted unity of the Church is thus again broken. On the one side the Archbishop is urged by his imperious master at Rome to proceed with the utmost severity against Dr. Döllinger, on the other addresses of sympathy and evidences of deepest interest in the Doctor's proceedings are manifested by learned bodies, by the King of Bavaria, and by numbers of the people, who regard it as the signal for a great intellectual movement in Germany.

The end of this movement it is impossible to foresee. With the example before them of the divisions, enmities, and contentions of Protestant communities, they may naturally shrink from attempting the establishment of another Christian community ; but the love of truth and the liberty of its investigation which is dawning upon the mind cannot be extinguished. Spiritual freedom is the great law of the new order of things on which the Church has entered, and it cannot be entirely excluded from even the papacy itself. *

by Mr. Sutton; Burnley, Clayton-leMoors, and Embsay, by Rev. R. Storry; Wigan, Bolton, and Haslingden, by Rev. E. D. Rendell ; Besses-o'-th-Barn, by Mr. Seddon; Rhodes and Failsworth, by the Rev. W. Westall ; Liverpool and Oldham, by Rev. J. Hyde; Ramsbottom, by Mr. Gunton and Mr. Seddon; and Salford, by Rev. J. Presland. Social meetings are also announced at Oswaldtwistle, Bolton, Salford, Oldham, Blackburn, and Manchester. Announcements are also made of several annual meetings which will be held during the quarter. Of these one of the longest established is the annual meeting of the members and friends of the New Church in Lancashire. Of this meeting we have received the following account from å correspondent: “ The meeting was held this year at Oldham, on Easter Monday. The attendance was not so numerous as on some former occasions; the proceedings, however, did not appear to lack the usual interest of this assembly. The Rev. W. Westall was appointed to the chair. The speakers were the Revs. W. Westall, Boys, and J. Hyde, and Messrs. S. Henshall, J. Larkin, G. Wilson, W. Oxley, T. Robinson. The subject for consideration was Matt. xxv. 31, to the end of the chapter. The summary of the remarks was to the effect, that this parable, and those which precede it, treat of the Lord's coming and of the judgment to be then effected ; that the judgment does not take place in this world, but in the world of spirits, or the intermediate state between heaven and hell; that it takes place upon those connected with the Church, and who are either in the internal love of goodness and truth, and thence in its outward practice, or merely in the persuasion of the truths of the Church, and the external profession of religion without its internal life. Those connected with the Church are they who have lamps and oil, illumination of intellect upon spiritual things, joined with love and charity; or they have lamps without oil, an understanding enlightened on religious subjects, but a will uninfluenced by love and charity: of those who had talents of which they made use, and of those who had a talent of which they made no use: also of those who did the works of charity, and of those who did

MANCHESTER AND SALFORD MisSIONARY SOCIETY. — “The quarterly arrangement” of missionary services by this Society contains the usual amount of active labour by the several missionary preachers. Thirty-four societies are ministered to on the Sabbath by eight ministers, seven leaders, and nineteen missionary preachers and auxiliaries. In addition to these services, special services, chiefly Sunday school sermons, are announced during the quarter at Oswaldtwistle,

* Since the above was written, the papers have announced that sentence of excommunication has been pronounced by the Archbishop against Dr. Dollinger.

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them not. The characteristics of sheep were described, and they were shown to be emblems of charity, or of those influenced by charity; especially they were types of those who were internally as well as externally charitable. Goats were shown to be the proper types of faith, or of those who were principled in faith. In the parable under consideration they represented those who had the knowledges of faith, and trusted in those alone for salvation, accounting the works of charity as of no avail. The setting of the sheep on the right hand and the goats on the left, denoted the separating of the good from the wicked, after their characters had been made manifest. In the world of spirits the right hand of the Lord signified Heaven, and the left hand Hell; but in the heavens His right hand denoted the celestial kingdom, and the left His spiritual kingdom, and that this signification was illustrated in the request of the mother of Zebedee's children.” At the close of the meeting tea was provided, and some time spent in social intercourse and profitable conversation.

LONDON NEW CHURCH ASSOCIATION.—The usual quarterly meeting of this association was held on the 29th March at Argyle Square, Mr. E. Austin, in the absence of Dr. Bayley, the president, being called to the chair. From the report of the executive committee for the past year, it appeared that the formidable obstacles to perfect union and combined operation which at first seemed to exist, have been found in experience to possess the slightest possible weight, and to effectually dis

before the warm and kindly spirit which has animated all subsequent proceedings. In reviewing the work actually accomplished, the first and most important part is that connected with the interchange of ministers—important, not as gratifying the curiosity of our societies, but as a means of building up a warm and appreciative friendship among us.

This has been the result with every society, and the visits have not only been cheering to them, but of essential use

the ministers who have engaged in them.

The following is a detail of the interchanges :- Dr. Bayley has officiated at Islington and South London ; Dr. Tafel also at Islington and South London; Rev. T. L. Marsden at

Deptford, Hammersmith, South London, and Buttesland St. ; Mr. Bateman at Argyle Square, Cross St., and South London (twice); Mr. Austin, Argyle Square, Cross St., Islington (twice), Deptford, Hammersmith, and Snod. land ; Mr. Rhodes, South London, Snodland, and Hammersmith (thrice); Mr. Madeley, Islington, South London, Snodland, and Deptford (thrice); Mr. Ramage, Snodland. Among the subjects discussed as opening the way for increased usefulness may be mentioned a recommendation to each minister or leader to forward handbills of all lectures to be delivered by him at his own place of worship to every minister or leader of the association.

It was thought by some that a siinultaneous course of lectures might possibly be useful, but no action in such line has yet been taken. The various styles and designations under which our places of worship have appeared in the Post Office Directory came under discussion, and one uniform title was adopted and recommended to each society : “New Jerusalem Church (Swedenborgian). A complete list of our London churches, with ministers' names and addresses, was inserted in the Post Office Directory, and much fuller accounts appeared in the Pro. testant Dissenters' Almanac, and the Clerical Year Book. These latter articles were prepared at the express request of the respective editors, and cannot but be useful. The subject of the attacks on the New Church which have appeared from time to time in the columns of the newspaper press was also discussed at one of the meetings, together with the best means of counteracting them, when it was decided that all members of the different societies meeting any such in future be requested to forward a copy to the secretary of the association, who was charged either to reply or to forward for purpose of reply to one of the members of the executive committee. Another subject which has been brought before the association is the establishment of a weekly or bi-weekly newspaper.

While there was the utmost unanimity as to the desirableness of possessing such an organ, very con. siderable difference of opinion existed as to the possibility of realizing it. Eventually a sub-committee of those most active in bringing forward the

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