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tians. was probably known to the Jews, and may be
identified with the Psaltery," Ps. xcii.. with illus-
trative figures, and Ps. cvili., where are figures of the
ancient Egyptian harp, especially one which seems to
denote the most perfect form at which the Egyptian
harp arrived.

Timbrel and cymbal.—The same word translated "tim-
brel," also rendered "tabret." with figures of Egyp-
tian tambourine players, and classical tambourines,
Ps. cl. 3; ancient cymbals, and sistrums, both Egyp-
tian and classical, cl. 5; tabret used generally for in-
struments of the drum kind, Gen xxxi. 27.
Musicians. David probably had a band of vocal and in-
strumental performers as part of his royal establishment,
2 Sam. xix. 35; the musical establishment of the Tem-
ple, 1 Chron. xxvi. ; the “chief musician," Ps. iv. 1.
Myrrh, Gen. xxxvii. 25.

Myrtle, Zech i. 8.


Nahum, prophet and book, Nahum i. 1.

Bats.-Though the Arabs regard a boat as a young
ship, a boat is in fact the parent of a ship; conjec-
tural view of the history of boat-building, with an
Egyptian ferry-boat, a swamp-boat, ancient Persian
boats, and the British coracle, 2 Sam. xix. 18.
Ships-Ship-building, and different classes of ancient
ships, illustrated by the building of the ship Argo,
from the Townley collection. Egyptian ships, and
Roman galleys, 2 Chron. xx. 36; ships from Pompeii,
a modern ship of the Nile, and a Chinese ship of war,
which perhaps comes nearest in shape to that in which
Paul suffered shipwreck, Acts xxvi.

Seamanship.-View of the ancient Hebrew extent of na-
vigation. 2 Chron. ix. and chapter xx.; the seaman-
ship of the ancients, as illustrated by Paul's voyage,
Acts xxvii.; the Phoenicians probably the earliest
ship-builders, and sailors, at least the earliest that
established a maritime commerce, Joshua xix. 28.
Nazareth, town of, ancient and present state of, Matt. ii.
23; view of, Luke iv.

Nazarite, from "natzar," to separate, institution of, or ra-
ther regulation of a previously existing custom, Num.
vi. 2; remarkable Nazarites, Samson, Judges xvi. 22;
Samuel, 1 Sam. i. 11.

Nebo, Mount, Deut. xxxiv. 1.

Nebuchadnezzar, probable nature of his mental alienation,
Dan. iv. 33.

Nehemiah, book of, Neh. i. 1.

Nets, note on, Matt. iv. 21.

Nicopolis, many places of this name, Titus iii. 15.
Nimrod, his probable character, Gen. x. 8.

Nineveh, first mentioned, Gen. x. 11; estimate of the ex-
tent of the city and population, Jonah iii. 3; particulars
of the overthrow of the city, Nahum, chapters i.-iii.;
view and description of its present ruined state, Zeph.

ii. 13.

Nitre, Jer. ii. 22.

Number, a definite, frequently used for an indefinite,
Num. xiv. 22.

Numbers, book of, Num. i. 1.


Oaths. Arabian feeling as to using the name of God in
swearing, Gen. xxi. 23; swearing by the life of a supe-
rior or respected person a common conversational oath,
Gen. xlii. 15; ancient forms of solemn swearing, Gen.
xxiv. 2, and xxxi. 53; regulation respecting rash oaths,
Lev. v. 1-4; under the names of thief and false swearer,
the Hebrews comprehended all other crimes, Zech. v. 4;
expletive or common paths forbidden, Matt. v. 34; oath

made by Xerxes analogous to that made by Herod, as
recorded in Matt. xiv. 7.

Obadiah, no information in the Scriptures respecting,
Obad. i.

Oblations, a general name for all sorts of offerings to God,
Lev. vii. 38.

Offerings, several kinds, called “first-fruits," Lev ni
10; votive offerings to idols, 1 Sam. vi. 4.
Officers, Oriental, frequently exposed to personal chastise-
ment, Exod. v. 14.

Oil, anointing, uses of, amongst the Hebrews and other
nations. Exod. xxx. 25; Lev. ii. 6; and viii, 12.
Olive. Palestine may still be called, in the words of Mo-
ses, a land of olive trees, Deut. viii. 8; description and
figure of the olive, Judges ix. 9; farther description.
with view in an olive forest, Isa. xxiv. 13; traffic between
Egypt and Palestine in olive oil, Hosea xii. 1; illustre
tion of Paul's figure of grafting, in Rom. xii. 17.
Onesimus, who and what he was, Philemon i.
Onions, peculiar flavour of Oriental, Num. xi. 5.
Onyx stone, the, Gen. ii. 12.

Ophir, inquiry respecting its probable situation, 2 Chris.
ix., and xx. 36.

Oracles, heathen, ambiguity of the responses, 2 Chron
xviii. 5.

Ordeal in cases of jealousy, Num. v. 29.

Ostrich, description and figure, Job xxxix. 13.
Owl, screech, description and figure, Isa. xxxiv. 14.
Oxen, employment of, as beasts of burden, 1 Chron. xi. 49


Painting, Mohammed's prohibition of representing the
living figure, Deut. v. 9.

Palace. The allegorical description of a magnificent pa
lace in Isa. lv. 12, illustrated, with patterns of Egyptian
mosaic; the "ivory" palaces alluded to, in Ps. V. S
general description of an Oriental palace, with view of
the exterior of a royal palace at Ispahan, Esther i,
Palanquin, state, of Hindustan, Cant. iii. 9.
Palestine. [Canaan.]

Palm-tree, one of the noblest that adorn the wildernes.
with wild date palm found in the Sinai mountains
Exod. xv. 27; palm trees used in the construction of
the temple, 2 Chron. iii. 5; general description of the
palm-tree, with figure of the date palm, and the doun
palm, Joel i. 12.

Palmyra, "Tadmor in the wilderness," its history, with
views of its ruins, 2 Chron. viii. 4.

Paran, wilderness of, Gen. xxi. 21.

Partridges, Oriental, with figures, Jer. xvii. 11.
Passover, circumstances connected with its institution
Exod. xii. 8-34; manner in which it was celebrated.
Luke xxii. 13; remarkable departure from the ancie
mode of eating the Passover "standing," like travellers.
or men in haste, as commanded in the Law, to the lux
urious posture of "reclining," John xiii. 23.
Patmos, description and view, Rev. i. 9.
Paul, change of his name, Acts xiii. 9; his personal ap
pearance and adveutures, 2 Cor. x. 10, 25; his impriso
ments at Rome, Acts xxviii. 16; 2 Tim. ii. 9; and iv. 16
Pelican and young, Ps. cii. 6.

Perfumes, fondness of the Orientals for, Gen. xxvii. 27
Pergamos, view and description, Rev. ii. 12.
Persia, etymology of the word, Ezra iv. 9; Persian cities.
Ecbatana and Susa, Ezra vii. 2; care of the ancient
Persian government to register all remarkable events.
Esther vi. 1; chronological view of the reigns of the m
cient Persian monarchs, Ezra i. 1; portraits of modern
Persian kings, 2 Sam. i. 10; and chapter vii. 1; Esther
vi. 8; ancient sculpture, conjectured to represent a roșa
council, Esther i. 14; other representations of a Persian
king enthroned, and walking, as illustrative of the
cient state and dignity of the Persian court, Fria i
the "law of the Medes and Persians which altereth ust"

illustrated by an anecdote of a recent Persian king
Aga Mohammed Khan (whose portrait is given at
2 Sam. i.) Dan. vi. 8; we are probably indebted to Per-
sia for the first establishment of a system of posts and
couriers, Esther ix. 10; annual custom of offering pre-
sents to the king of Persia, Judges iii. 18.
Petra. A view and description of Petra, in Wady Mousa,
given under the supposition that it is to be identified
with the "Selah" of the Edomites, whose name was
changed to Joktheel. 2 Kings xiv. 7; farther notice of
this, 2 Chron. xxv. 12; supposed allusion to Petra, as
the "strong city," Ps. lx. 9; its present state, in illus-
tration of the remarkable prophetic denunciation in Jer.
xlix. 16; with two views of its ruins; wild creatures
which abound there, Isa. xxxiv. 14.
Pharisees, account of the, Matt. xii. 14.
Philadelphia, still exists as a town, Rev. iii. 7.
Philippi, notice of the city, Acts xvi. 12; epistle to the
church at Philippi, Phil. i. 1.

Philistines, descended from Mizraim, the second son of

Ham, Joshua xiii. 2; their chief cities, temples, &c.
Judges xvi.; the country of the Philistines, Jer. xlvii.

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Pilate, biographical notice of, Matt. xxvii. 2; his cha-
racter, and supposititious letter to Tiberius, respecting
the crucifixion, John xix. 12.

Plague, the, description of, Deut. xxviii. 21; its terrible
effects, Ps. lxxviii. 64; "the Plague," from Poussin,
1 Chron. xxi.

Plane-tree, the, Gen. xxx. 37.

Police, probably established in Jewish towns, Cant. v. 7
Polygamy, first recorded instance of, Gen. iv. 19; its ten-
dencies, 2 Sam. xiii. 20.

Pomegranate, its juice makes a sherbet much esteemed,
Cant. viii. 2.

Poplar, the, Gen. xxx. 37.

Posts and couriers, establishment of, Esther ix. 10.
Prayer. Ancient custom of worshippers during prayer,
directing their faces towards a particular point, 1 Kings
viii. 44; personification of prayer, Jer. xxxvi. 7; prac-
tices of the hypocrites during prayer, and our Saviour's
caution against vain repetitions, Matt. vi. 5, 7; Jewish
forms of prayer or thanksgivings for different kinds of
food, Mark viii. 6; offering of prayer in the temple by
the assembled worshippers, Luke ii. 10.

Presents. Offering of annual presents, or tribute, to Orien-
tal monarchs, Judges iii. 18; quite an usual practice for
an inferior to offer a superior a present, however small,
1 Sam. ix. 7; presents of provisions, 1 Kings xiv. 3;
the chief functionaries of an Eastern court receive large
sums in presents, Esther iii. 9.

Priests. Aaron and his sons set apart as priests, with a
description of the dress of the high-priest and priests,
Exod. xxxviii.; ceremonies of the consecration of Aaron
and his sons, Lev. viii.; summary view of the fees of
the priests, Num. xviii. 8; regulations as to their con-
duct, Lev. xxi.; by the Law, none but a Levite of
Aaron's family could be a priest, and none but a Levite
could officiate in the subordinate offices of religion,
1 Kings xii. 31.

Prophets, school of the, statement respecting, 1 Sam. x. 5;
table exhibiting the prophets in their order, and the
times of their prophesying, Hos. i. 1; the prophets
were accustomed to study the writings of their prede-
cessors, Dan. ix. 2.

Proverbs, written chiefly by Solomon, Prov. i

Proverbial expressions in the East, Matt. xix. 24, and
xxiii. 24.

Psalms, their authorship, titles, &c., Ps. i. 1.
Punishments. Power of inflicting capital punishments
possessed by heads of families, Gen. xxxviii. 24; capi-
tal and other punishments established amongst the
Jews, with the principle of compensation, Exod. xxi.,
capital punishments assigned for certain crimes, Lev.
xx. 10, 14; the crime of blasphemy specially dealt
with, Lev. xxiv. 11; and of sabbath-breaking, Num.
xv. 32; and also that of idolatry, Num. xxv. 4, and
Deut. xiii. 9; hanging alive not a Hebrew punishment,
Deut. xxi. 22; regulation of corporal punishment, Deut.
XXV.; placing the feet in the stocks, Job xiii. 27; the
only capital punishments under the Mosaic law were
stoning (the body being sometimes burned afterwards)
and "slaying with the sword," Joshua vii. 25; "hewing
in pieces," an arbitrary and summary punishment bor-
rowed by the Hebrews, 1 Sam. xv. 33; the summary
power possessed by Eastern monarchs in inflicting capi-
tal punishment, in illustration of Solomon's judicial
device to ascertain the mother of the disputed child,
1 Kings iii. 27; to this power Solomon alludes-"The
wrath of a king is as messengers of death," Prov. xvi.
14; precaution used in cases of capital conviction, Prov.
xxiv. 11; imprisonment by no means generally recog
nised as a judicial punishment, Jer. xxxvii. 15; the law
of Moses does not attach imprisonment as a punishment
to any crime, chap. xxxviii. 6; personal mutilation a
barbarous Eastern punishment, Ezek. xxiii. 25; throw-
ing into "a den of lions," a new kind of punishment not
previously mentioned in Scripture, but of which there
are existing monuments confirming the Scripture narra-
tive, Dan. vi. 16; mockery of persons previous to their
receiving personal punishment, Luke xxiii. 11; elucida-
tion of the phrase "sawn asunder," and what kind of
punishment it denotes, Heb. xi. 37.

Purple, highly esteemed, Exod. xxxv. 35.
Puteoli, in the Bay of Naples (anciently, Gulf of Cuma),
Acts xxviii. 13.

Quarantania, Matt. iv. 8.


Quail, its migratory habits, Exod. xvi. 13; notice and
figure, Num. xi. 31.


Rabbah of the Ammonites, prophecy of its desolation, and
its present state, Jer. xlix. 2.

Rabbi, meaning and application of, Matt. xxiii. 7.
Racing, persons trained to run before great personages,

and who are able to keep up with a horse on the gallop,
1 Sam. viii. 11; custom of "girding up the loins" in
running, 1 Kings xviii. 46; Grecian foot-racers, Phil.
iii. 12.

Rachel, reputed tomb of, Gen. xxxv. 20; Rachel selected
as the type of the kingdom, or general mother of the
nation, Jer. xxxi. 15.

Rahab, her entertainment of the spies, and probable cha-
racter, with illustration of "the oath of Rahab and
the spies," from Carracci, Joshua ii. 1.

Rain, conjecture that there was none before the Deluge,
Gen. xxvii. 28; the rainbow, Gen. viii. 13.
Rama, or Ramla, Matt. xxvii. 57.

Ramoth-Gilead, a city of refuge, and frontier town, 2 Kings
ix. 1.

Raven, the, Gen. viii. 7; trained for attacking men and
animals, Prov. xxx. 17.

Rechabites, the, account of, and statements respecting
their continued existence, Jer. xxxv. 2, 19.

Recorder, office of, under the Hebrews, 1 Chron. xviii, 15.
Records, state, or chronicles, Esther vi. 1.

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Resurrection, Jewish, ideas respecting the, Ps. xxxiv. 20.
Revenue, sources of the, under the monarchy, 1 Chron.
xxvii. 28-31; general principles of contribution to the
revenue of Eastern governors, Neh. v. 15.

Rhodes, island of, Acts xxi. 1.

Rice, mode of sowing, Isa. xxxii. 20.

Riddles, ancient custom of propounding, Judges xiv. 12,
and 1 Kings x. 1.

Rings worn as a mark of distinction, James ii. 2.
Roebuck, the, Deut. xii. 15.

Rome, church of, notice of, Rom. i. 1; social character of
the city of Rome, Rom. xii. 1; ruins of the palace of
Nero, Phil. i. 13; the Mamertine prison, 2 Tim. ii. 9.
Ropes in use amongst the Hebrews, Judges xvi. 7; cus
tom of captives appearing with ropes about their necks,
1 Kings xx. 32.

Rose of Sharon, explanation of, Cant. ii. 1.
Ruth, book of, Ruth i. 1.


Sabbath, reasons for its institution, Deut. v. 14; punish-
ment of the sabbath-breaker, Num. xv. 32; puerility of
many of the Rabbinical regulations respecting the sab-
bath, Matt. xii. 2; what constituted a sabbath-day's
journey, Acts i. 12.

Sabbatical system enjoined under the law of Moses, Lev.

xxv. 4.

Sackcloth, use of, in mourning, 2 Sam. iii. 31.
Sacrifice Solemn sacrificial ceremonies observed by Abra-
ham, Gen. xv. 10; was sacrifice an enjoined or self-
originated institution? Lev. i. 3; meat-offering, Lev.
ii. I; peace-offerings, iii. 1; sin-offering, iv. 3; the law
of the burnt-offering, vi. 9; the scape-goat, xvi.; the
great sacrifices of the new-moon probably introduced
into the Hebrew service to prevent idolatrous sacrifices
to the moon, common in heathen countries, Num.
xxviii. 11; improper conduct of the sons of Eli, in the
sacrifices, 1 Sam ii. 14, 15; Solomon's great sacrifice
at the dedication of the Temple, 1 Kings viii. 63.
Sacrifice, human. Inquiry into the nature of Jephthah's
vow, and whether there is any warrant for believing
that his daughter was sacrificed, Judges xi.; view of
the probable origin and extent of the practice of human
sacrifice, Jer. xix. 5; farther view of it, as noticed in
Micah vi. 7; Topheth, where the Jews sacrificed their
children, 2 Kings xxiii. 10.

Sadducees, account of the, Matt. xvi. 1.

Saffron, Cant. iv. 14.

Salem, town of, supposed to have been that afterwards
called Jerusalem, Gen. xiv. 18.

Salt. covenant of, Num. xviii. 19.

Salt, valley of, 2 Kings xiv. 7.

Salutations, Oriental, Ruth i, 4; much time spent by the
Orientals in mutual salutations, Luke x. 4.
Samaria, its foundation and history, 1 Kings xvi. 24;
famine during the siege of the city, 2 Kings vi. 25;
settlement of the foreigners who constituted the "Sa-
maritans" of aftertimes, 2 Kings xvii. 26; causes of
the enmity between the Jews and Samaritans, John

iv. 9.

Samothracia, Acts xvi. 11.

Samson, his conduct and character, Judges xiii.—xvi.
Samuel, book of, 1 Sam. i.

Sanctuary, general view of the origin of, amongst different
nations, in illustration of the establishment of the cities
of refuge, Josh. xx. 2.

Sanhedrin. Is it to be traced from the seventy elders

who assisted Moses? Num. xi. 16; or as mentioned in
2 Chron. xix. 8; power of the Sanhedrim under the
Romans, Acts vii. 57

Sapphire, the, Exod. xxiv. 10.

Sardis, its ancient splendour and now utterly ruined state,

Rev. iii. 1.

Sarepta, town of, 1 Kings xvii. 9.

Scarlet, Exod. xxxv. 35.

Sceptres, appear to have been derived from the shepherd's
rod, Ezek. xix. 11.

Scribes, the, account of, Matt. xv. 1.

Sculpture, probable origin of, Exod. xxxii. 4; what kind
of sculpture was forbidden to the Jews? Deut. v. 8; no
mention of sculptured stones in Solomon's Temple,
2 Chron. iii. 6; sculptors at work, Isa. xliv. 12.
Seal, the, importance of, as a warrant of authority, Ga.
xli. 42; discussion respecting ancient seals, with a group
of cylindrical and other seals, 1 Kings xxi. 8; group of
seal-rings, Esther iv. 12; explanation of “It is turned
as clay to the seal," Job xxxviii. 14.

Selah, meaning of the word, Ps. iii. 2.

Sennacherib, notice of his defeat and death, 2 Kings xix
35; his army was probably destroyed by the simon,
Isa. xxxvii. 36.

Sepulchres, early origin of the practice of burying in, Gen.
xxiii. 19; sepulchral pillars and monuments, Gen. XXIF.
20; mountain of sepulchres at Nakshi Roustam, Isa,
xxii. 16; view of the mountain of sepulchres, Ezek
xxxii. 24; sepulchres of the prophets, Luke xi. 47;
distinction between private sepulchres, and the public
cemeteries attached to each city for those who possessed
no private sepulchres, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 4; sepulchral rites
of various nations, illustrated by views of sepulchres.
sepulchral monuments, and group of Seythian barrows,
Ezek. xxxii.

Seraphim, meaning of the word, with a figure from an an
cient Persian sculpture, which appears to offer some re-
semblances to the form described by the prophet, Isa.
vi. 2.

Serpents, fiery, Num. xxi. 6; serpent-worship, 2 Kings
xviii. 4.

Serpent-charmers, account of, with an illustration, Ps.
iviii. 5.

Sheba, country of the queen of, probability that it was
Abyssinia, 2 Chron. ix. 1.

Shiloah, view and notice of, Isa. viii. 6.
Sichem, mentioned proleptically, Gen. xii. 6.
Sidon, its ancient maritime importance and history, with
illustrative views, Josh. xix. 28.

Silk, was it known to the Hebrews? Ezek. xvi. 10.
Simoom, description of the, Isa. xxxvii. 36.
Slaves. The word "servant" frequently denotes what we
should call a slave, Gen. xiv. 14; superior condition of
"house-born slaves in the East, Gen. xv. 3; circum-
stances under which native Israelites might become
slaves, Deut. xv. 12; Moses did not originate, but regu
lated slavery, Lev. xxv. 47.

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Smyrna, view and description, Rev. ii. 8.
Snow, "treasures of the," Job xxxviii. 22.

Soap, what was the vegetable alkali which in our transla-
tion is called soap? Mal. iii. 2.

Sodom and Gomorrah, site and destruction of, Gen. xiv. 2 ;
xix. 24.

Sorcery amongst the superstitious practices forbidden,
Deut. xviii. 10.

Sparrow, bolder in the East than with us. Ps. lxxxiv. 3.
Spikenard of Scripture, inquiry respecting Mark xiv 3.
Stoics, the, account of, Acts xvii. 18.

Stork, the, favour with which it is regarded. Jer. xi. 19,
figure of, Job xxxix. 13; notice of, As for the stork,
the fir-trees are her house," Ps. civ. 17.
Sun standing still, discussion respecting, Josh. x. 13.
Supper, Lord's, abuses of the, 1 Cor. xi. 20.
Suicide rate in the East, 1 Sam. xxxi. 4.
Swallow, the, with figure, Ps. lxxxiv. 3.

Swine, prohibition of the use of, as food, under the law,

and reason of, Lev. xi. 7; but the prohibition of rearing
and keeping swine was a later refinement, Luke viii. 32
Sycamore, the, description and figure, 1 Kings x. 27.
Synagogues sometimes built by individuals, and presented
to the community, Luke vii. 5; interior arrangement of
synagogues in the time of our Saviour, Mark xii. 39;
manner in which the service was conducted on the Sab-
bath, Luke iv. 16; discourses delivered in the syna-
gogue, Acts xiii. 15; number of synagogues in Jeru-
salem, Acts vii. 9.

Syracuse, notice of, Acts xxviii. 12


Tabernacle, and its furniture. Description of the form
and size of the tabernacle, and notice of analogous
structures amongst nomadic nations. Exod. xxvi. 30;
the ark, table of Shittim-wood overlaid with gold, can-
dlestick, &c., with an estimate of the expense of the
tabernacle, which was erected both by assessment and
voluntary contribution, Exod. xxv.; the court of the
tabernacle was an open enclosure, Exod. xxvii. 9; prin-
tiple or reason of the institution of the tabernacle, as
the residence or place of the Head or King of the
nation, Exod. xxxv. 11.

Tabernacle of Moses, was probably his tent, where he sat
as judge and governor, Exod. xxxiii. 7.

Tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, Num. xvii. 27.
Tabor, Mount (the supposed scene of our Lord's transfigu-
ration) description of, with view, Judges iv. 12.
Tares, probably the lolium temulentum, or darnel, descrip-
tion and figure, Matt. xiii. 25.
Tarshish, inquiry concerning its situation, and what is to
be understood by "ships of Tarshish," 2 Chron. ix. 10;
inquiry continued in 2 Chron. xx. 36; the Tarshish to
which Jonah attempted to sail, probably Tartessus, the
Phoenician settlement on the Atlantic coast of Spain,
Jonah i 3.

Tarsus, capital of Cilicia, Acts xxii. 3.

Tattooing, or puncturing, forbidden, Lev. xix. 28; figure
representing the manner of the practice, Jer. iv. 30.
Taxes paid in produce of the soil, 1 Kings iv. 7; and 2
Kings iii. 4; Solomon's reign created heavy taxation,
1 Kings xii. 4.

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Temples. At what period were temples first erected?
Deut. xii. 2; the temple" of the Philistines, which
Samson pulled down, Judges xvi. 27.

Temple, the first, or Solomon's, general description of,
with plan, 1 Kings vi.; the temple establishment of
priests, Levites, officers, porters, and musicians, 1 Chron.
xxvi.; estimate of the expense of the erection of the
Temple, and the probable sources from whence the
money was derived, 1 Chron. xxix. 7; supply of water
to the Temple, Ezek. xlvii. 1.

Temple, the second and third, the second being the one
built after the Captivity, which was rebuilt by Herod,
Hag. ii. 7, 9; to this our Saviour alludes in John ii. 20;
the Beautiful gate of the Temple, Acts iii. 2; who and
what was the captain of the Temple?" Acts iv. 1; the
veil of the Temple, Heb. x. 3.

Temple tribute, an annual payment exacted from every
adult male Israelite for the service of the Temple, Matt.
xvii. 24; the payment of this tax, when Judea was a
Roman province, gave employment to the " "money-
changers," as coins bearing idolatrous images could not
be paid into the treasury, Mark xi. 15.
Temple, Ezekiel's symbolical, Ezek. chaps. xl.—xlviii.
Tents, first recorded instance of men's living in, Gen. iv.

20; their use probably arose out of the exigences of the
pastoral life, Gen. xxv. 27; tents of the Israelites, Num.
ii. 3, and xxiv. 5; custom of abiding in tents, Ezra viii.
15; huge eastern tents. Caut. i. 5.

Thessalonica, city of, still survives under the abridged
name of Salonica, 1 Thes. i.

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Troglodyte, the African people so called, 2 Chron. xii. 3.
Tyre, called, in the Bible, the "daughter of Sidon," from
its origin, notice of its early history, with a view of its
ruins, Josh. xix. 28; vigorous and powerful opposition
made by Tyre to different conquerors, 2 Kings xvii. 3;
circumstantial prediction of the downfall of Tyre, deli-
vered at a time when the city was at the height of its
prosperity, with a general view of its commerce, Ezek.
chapters xxvi. to xxviii.

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Walls, different kinds of, Job iv. 19; one kind answers to
the cob-walls of Devonshire, Ezek. xii. 7, and xiii. 10.
War, first mention of an act of, Gen. xiv. 2; regulations
for the Jews when they went to war, Deut. xx. 5; man-
ner in which the Israelites commenced and conducted
a war, Judges xx. ; customs in declaring war. by shoot-
ing arrows, or throwing a javelin, 1 Kings xiii. 7; war
signals, 1 Sam. xi. 7.

Washing hands, eastern_mode of, description and figures,
2 Kings iii. 11; and Job ix. 30; washing hands before
prayers, Ps. xxvi. 6; ceremonial refinements in the
washing of hands, Mark vii. 3; our Lord's humility
evinced by washing the disciples' feet, John xiii. 5.
Water from the wells usually drawn by the women in the
evenings, Gen. xxiv. 11; want of. in the desert, Gen.
xxi. 15; bad qualities of, corrected by the use of cer-
tain plants, Exod. xv. 25; Oriental water-carrier, Deut.
xxix. 11; water sold, Lament. v. 4.

Weights and measures, dishonest practices in the use of,
by the traders of the East, Deut. xxv. 13.

Wells, their value and importance, Gen. xxvi. 20, and
xxix. 3; Jacob's well. John iv. 6.

Whirlwinds and sand storms in the desert, Deut. xxviii
24; pictorial illustration, Jer. xxx. 23.
Wormwood, notice and figure, Prov. v. 4; Jer. xxiii. 15.
Writing, view of the progress of, from engraving on hard
substances, the earliest process, to writing on ductile
materials, Exod. xxxii. 15; engraved rocks in the Wady
Mokatteb, and group showing the use of the style, Job
xix. xxiii. 24; notice of the various materials of which

ancient "books" were composed, with illustrations,
Deut. xxxi. 24; writing on sticks," or pieces of wood,
Ezek. xxxvii. 20; writing materials, Ezek. ix. 2; Oriental
letters, Neh. vi. 5; the "writing on the wall,” Dan. v.
8; sentences written on doors, over gates, and as orna-
mental scrolls in the interior of apartments, with illus-
trations of an Arabic door inscribed with passages from
the Koran, Deut vi. 9.


Year, the sacred and civil, Lev. xxv. 21.

Zechariah, book of, Zech. i.; his tomb, chap. xiv.
Zoroaster, from whence he derived his fire worship, Lev.
ix. 24; and his modification of the doctrine of light and
darkness, Isa xlv. 7.

LONDON: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street.

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