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distance from the decimal point, or the place which it occupies ? How does the value change from the left toward the right ? What part of a dollar is a dime ? A cent? A mill? Does the annexing of ciphers to a decimal, alter its value? When a cipher is prefixed to a number? When prefixed, does it increase the numerator or denominator ? Will it produce any effect on the value of a fraction ? What will .8 become by prefixing a cipher? How do you write down numbers in addition? How are you to place the decimal points? How will then

proceed ? Where will you place the decimal point in the sum ? Repeat the rule ? Give an example in addition on your slate. What is the rule for Subtraction of Decimals ? write down the numbers ? How will

you
then

proceed? Where will you place the decimal point in the remainder ? What is the rule for Multiplication of Decimals ? After multiplying, how many decimal places will you count off in the product ? When there are not so many in the product, what will you do? How do you multiply a decimal by 10, 1000, &c. ? What more can you say of Multiplication of Decimals? Give a few examples on your slate. What is the rule for Division of Decimals? How does the number of decimal places in the dividend compare

with those in the divisor and quotient? How do you determine the number of decimal places in the quotient ? Suppose there are two places in the divisor, and three in the dividend, how many would you count off in the quotient ? How do you divide a decimal by 10, 100, &c. ? When there are more decimal places in the divisor than is in the dividend, what will you do? In this case what will the figures in the quotient be? How can you continue division after you have brought down all the figures in the dividend ? Give a few examples of your knowledge of decimals on the slate, with an explanation of the

Divide .2142 by 3.2=.066+. Divide 2.00385 by 931 =.0021523. Can there be a decimal figure in the quotient, unless you have a decimal in the dividend, or by annexing a cipher, which is the same? When you have brought down a decimal figure to the remainder, what will the next quotient figure be ? When the price of one article is given, and you wish to know the value of 100, 1000, &c., how will you place the decimal point without multiplying?

Ans. Thus, 1 yard, 37.5c. ; 10 yards, D.3.75 ; 1000 yards, D.375.00, &c.

The denominator to a decimal fraction, although not expressed, is always understood.

same.

TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

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Let the pupil commit all the tables to memory.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
By this weight are weighed things of a coarse or drossy na-
ture, and all metals, except silver and gold.
Denominations.

Marked.
16 drams (dr.)
equal, or make
1 ounce,

oz. 16 ounces

1 pound,

lb. 28 pounds

1 qr., (gross weight.) 4 quarters, or 112 lb.

1 hund.cwt.(gross cwt.) 100 pounds (in general use)

1 hund. C. (lb. wt.) 20 hund. wt. (2240 lb.)

1 ton

T.
TROY WEIGHT.
Gold, silver, jewels, and liquors, are weighed by this weight.
Denominations.

Marked. 24 grains (gr.)

make 1 pennyweight, pwt. or dwt. 20 pennyweights

1 ounce,

os 12 ounces

1 pound,

lb, Note.—1 lb. troy=5760 grains, and 1 lb. avoirdupois=7000 grains, 175 oz. troy=192 avoirdupois oz., 175 lb. troy=144 avoirdupois lb.

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT. By this weight apothecaries mix their medicines, but buy and sell by avoirdupois weight. Denominations. 20 grains (gr.)

make

1 scruple. 3 scruples

1 dram. 8 drams

1 ounce. 12 ounces

1 pound. Note.—The lb. and oz. apothecaries' weight, and the lb. and z. troy, are the same, only differently divided and subdivided.

CLOTH MEASURE.
By this measure cloth, tape, ribands, calico, &c., are measured.
Denominations.

Marked.
2.25 (21) inches, (in.) make 1 nail.
4 nails, or 9 in.

1 quarter of a yard, qr

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TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

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693 (69.bstaiute, of} miles, make 1 degree,

Denominations.

Marked. 10 nails, or 221 in. make 1 ell Hamburgh, E. H. 3 quarters, or 27 in.

1 ell Flemish, E. F. 27.2 inches

1 ell Scotch,

E. S. 33 inches

1 var Spanish, V. S. 4 quarters, or 36 in.

1 yard,

yd. 5 quarters, or 45 in.

1 ell English, E. E. 6 quarters, or 54 in.

1 ell French,

E. F. The yard is used in measuring all kinds of piece goods in the United States.

LONG MEASURE.
This measure is applied to distance, or length.
Denominations.

Marked. 3 barleycorns (bc.) make 1 inch,

in. 12 inches

1 foot,

ft. 3 feet, or 36 in.

1 yard,

yd. 5. (5.5) yards, or 163 ft.

1 rod, po., or perch, R. P. 40 poles, or 220 yards,

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs, or 320 po., or 1760 yds. 1 mile,

M.

deg. 60 360 degrees

1 circle,

cir. A circle is the circumference of the earth.

6 points=1 line, 12 lines 1 inch, applied to the measure of pendulums.

Note.-A hand is 4 inches, used in measuring the height of horses ; a fathom is 6 feet, used in measuring the depth of water (fm.); a league is 3 miles, used in measuring distances at sea (L.).

LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE. This measure is applied to land, and has respect to length and breadth, but not to depth. Denominations.

Marked. 144 square inches, (in.)

1 foot

make 1 square foot, ft. 9 square feet (1296 in.)

1 sq. yard, sq. yd.

square 30.25 sq. yds. or 272.25 sq. ft.

1 sq. perch, sq. P. 40 sq. P. (1210 sq. yds.)

1 rood,

R. 4 roods, or 160 P.

1 acre,

A. 640 acres or 1 section of land,

1 square mile, M.

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3 feet

1 yard is

3 times 3 is

9 ft. or sq. yd.

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m.

CHAIN. Denominations.

Markeit. 7.92 inches

equal i link,

li. 25 links

1 rod, pole, or perch, P 4 rods, or 66 st. Gunter's ch., or 100 li.

1 chain,

ch. 1 square chain

“ 16 square poles. 80 chains, or 320 rods

1 mile, 10 square chains

A. The American or English mile is 5280 feet. French mile

5328 Italian mile

5566 German mile

26400 Dutch, Spanish, or Polish mile 21120 Scotch mile

7920 Indian mile

15840 Irish mile

6720

1 acre,

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LIQUID MEASURE.
This measure is used for beer, wine, cider, &c.

The gallon contains 231 cubic inches, or .13368 feet. Denominations.

Marked. 4 gills (gi.)

equal 1 pint,

pt. 2 pints

1 quart,

qt. 4 quarts

1 gallon,

gal, 16 gallons

1 half-barrel, hf. bar, 31} (31.5) gallons

1 barrel,

bar, 42 gallons

1 tierce,

tier 63 gallons

1 hogshead,

hhd. 84 gallons

1 puncheon, 2 hogsheads

1 pipe or butt, 2 pipes or butts

1 tun,

T:

.

punch p. or b,

DRY MEASURE.

This measure is used for all dry goods, or such as are sold by the bushel. Denominations.

Marked 2 pints (pt.)

equal 1 quart,

qt. 8 quarts

1 peck,

pk. 4 pecks=32 qts.=64 pts.

1 bushel,

bush. 196 pounds flour, 200 pounds pork, 1 barrel,

bar. A bushel is 18} inches in diameter, and 8 inches in depth.

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MOTION OR CIRCLE MEASURE.
This measure is used by astronomers, navigators, &c.
Denominations.

Marked.
60 seconds (")

equal 1 minute, 60 minutes

1 degree, 30 degrees

sig. 12 signs, 360 degrees

1 revolution of

planet or circle
Sound moves at the rate of 1142 feet per second, equal to
12 miles, 3 furlongs, 32 poles, 4 yards, per minute. Light
passes from the sun to the earth, 95 millions of miles, in 8.2
minutes, or 11585365 miles per minute.

SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE.
By this measure is ascertained the solid content of all things
in which length, breadth, and thickness, are considered ; such
as stone, timber, wood, bark, grain, coal, &c. A cube is a solid
of six equal sides.
Denominations.

Marked.
1728 cubic inches (c. in.) equal 1 cubic foot,
27 cubic feet, or 46656 in.

1 cubic yard,
40 feet of round timber, or

T. 50 feet of hewn timber, S S_2150.4252 c. in., or 1.24446 c. ft. 1 bushel, of strick

measure,


2553.6299 c.in., or 1.47779+ c. ft. 1 bush. of heaped

c. ft.

c. y.

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1 ton,

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measure.

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128 cubical feet, or 221184 c. in.,

or 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 1 cord of wood, C.

4 ft. high: 8X4=32 X 45128,
A cord foot is one foot in length of the pile which makes a

cord, and is equal to 16 solid feet, or of a cord.
161 solid feet=l solid perch.

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TIME.
Denominations.

Marked
60 seconds, sec.

equal 1 minute, 60 minutes,

1 hour,

hr. 24 hours,

1 day,

da. D. 7 days,

1 week, 4 weeks

1 mo. lunar,

mo.
13 months, 1 day, 6 hours (lunar), or
12 mo..of 30.4375 days each, or

1 Julian year.
365.25, 365 days, or 52 weeks,

W.

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