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is impelled by the nature and course of the business, and is fufficiently master of the subject, and delivering his sentiments with unaffuming simplicity and conciseness. It is thus that, acting with modesty suited to his recent parliamentary existence; not embarrassed by consciousness that a long and studied oration is expected from him ; attracting no rigorous observation, rousing no prejudices, exposing himself to no obloquy and suspicion ; gaining unreserved credit when he excels, and losing little though he should chance to fail; he will lay the groundwork of future eminence in a continually increasing reputation for judge, ment and knowledge: and gradually advancing, as he feels his strength augmented by exercise, and his talents called forward by general favour, into the foremost ranks of debate, he will obtain that honest distinction, and that power of benefiting his country, which the flashes of eager oftentation could not have

permanently secured, and might have prevented

for ever.

While the Legislator is earnestly engaged in augmenting the treasures of his mind, let him 5


remember that their proper application depends solely on the disposition of the heart. It is there that he is to fix that resolute and stubborn sense of duty, which may fortify him against the attacks of vanity, selfishness and ambition, the partial solicitations of friendship, and the overwhelming influence of false shame ; and may even supply to a certain degree the place of a superior understanding, by relieving his judgement from the bias of those culpable motives and prepossessions, which frequently prove the sources of erroneous conclusions. In order to preserve this principle at once pure in itself and efficacious in governing his conduct, let him resolve from the first moment of his outset in public life to fhun the snares of party. Let him be studiously select in the choice of his political acquaintance, and beware of contracting intimacies with persons who profess themselves, or who are known to be, determined partifans. Let him steadily guard against being deluded by the flattering civilities and studied notice of the leaders of a party; or by any of those lures which the retainers of a party commonly throw out with equal diligence and

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cunning to young men entering into public life. (6). Let him learn to detect the hackneyed sophism, by which he will hear the sacrifice of every upright motive palliated and recommended ; that a concurrence of many is necessary to the success of every plan ; and that no man can expect the aid of others without being ready to make reciprocal concessions and compliances. Let him tell those who urge it, that to co-operate is not to be a partisan; that co-operation asks no concessions but such as are consistent with morality and religion ;

(6) In some of the ways alluded to, the great political clubs, of which any existing party has commonly one or more attached to itself, do very great mischief both to individuals and to the public. There are other moft ferious evils with which these and fimilar clubs established in the metropolis are chargeable ; evils which may extend to all who belong to the club, whether political men or not. I refer, not only to the opportunities and encouragement furnished to gaming and other gross vices ; but to the prevalence of a system of expensive luxury and sensu. ality, which is found to produce habitual estrangement from domestic intercourse and comforts; habitual diffatisfaction with all society, in which gratifications corresponding to those of the club-room are not attainable ; and a gradual cessation of familiarity with former friends who are too wise to afford them.



that party requires her votary to violate, either expressly or impliedly, the dictates of both to affirm what he believes to be false ; to deny

i what he knows to be true; to praise what he judges unwise ;-to countenance what he deems reprehensible. Let him explicitly make known to those with whom he co-operates in political undertakings, that he is an independent friend, who will support them in every measure which he shall think equitable in icself, and conducive to the national welfare ; not an articled confederate, pledged to concur in proceedings which his judgement or his conscience disapproves. Let him guard with scrupulous vigilance against rashness in contracting political obligations by a precipitate acceptance of offices or honours. And whenever cool reflection induces him to receive a post of employment, or personal promotion, from the leader who dispenses the favours of the Crown ; let him not forget that sincerity requires him not to leave the donor or the public under mistaken ideas of his having engaged to make that return, which prevailing custom


have taught the one regularly to expect, and the other to behold without sur


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prise. A disregard of these precautions has made many men criminal, many suspected, and many unhappy. The evil too, though it may be prevented, is frequently incapable of being remedied. The man, who has been advanced in rank, cannot reduce himself to his ancient level. An office may be resigned ; but the character may have been stamped by the mode of obtaining it. The burthen may be shaken off ; but the marks which it has impressed may remain for life.

It is a prevailing complaint, that few Peers who are not invested with offices, nor candidates for them, are sufficiently sedulous, except on particular occasions, in their attendance at the House of Lords. This circumstance ought to operate as an admonition on each individual member. And the possession of a permanent seat, while it secures a Nobleman from incurring by neglect the forfeiture of his station, will prove on that very account, to a generous mind, an incitement to diligence.

The public functions of a Peer are twofold; those of a Legislator, and those of a


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