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deciding on the conduct of the executive of ficers of the Crown, he will be guided neither by hopes nor by fears, by attachment nor by aversion. He will discountenance the prevailing maxim of estimating the merit of their operations by the event; not merely because the wisest plans may be disconcerted by accidents, and the most inconsiderate crowned with undeserved success; but because the most politic and beneficial end may have been ob

able; and all Bills which render perjury more frequent by the multiplication of unnecessary or improper oaths ; or which encourage smuggling, and opprefs the honest traders by imposing high duties on commerce or manufactures, in cases where fraud is easy and obvious. Among the advantages of freeing trade from all needless restrictions, the number of oaths faved is perhaps the most important. The scandalous violation and evasions of oaths taken at the Custom House can scarcely be described. And it may not be improper here to add, that the total disregard shewn by Churchwardens to parts of their oath, the injunctions of which will never be obeyed in the present ftate of manners and society, loudly demands the interposition of the Legislature. In the successive execution of this office, almost every man above the rank of a daylabourer in every parish of the kingdom learns to confie der the strongest fanction of truth as a nugatory form. Let the effects, both in a ciyil and religious point of view, be estimated by those who have it in their power to remove the caufe.


tained by means which in the judgement of honest men should consign the agent to infamy. From the same scrupulous regard to the general interests of morality, he will be invariably solicitous, while he gives to Ministers that degree of confidence which he deems their situation to require, to have each of their proceedings with foreign powers brought as early and as diftin&ly before the public eye as the national safety will permit. Ministers have the common infirmities and the common feelings of men. Those who are actuated by the most commendable motives will be more on their guard against the failings to which even the best men are liable, when they know that their whole conduct is closely inspected. Those who are proof against the secret calls of virtue may be restrained by the fear of detection. It is the dusk of evening, or the obscurity of solitude, which sends forth the petty plunderer to his depredations; and guilt acts on the same principle in all classes of society.

When a conscientious member of the House of Lords engages in parliamentary debate, he will advance no arguments in support of his

opinion, opinion, but those which sincerity justifies him in maintaining. He will not conceive himself universally bound to produce those reasons which have the strongest influence on his own mind, if he apprehends that they would so far shock the prejudices of others as to endanger the success of the measure proposed, or that the avowal of them would involve the disclosure of political circumstances, which for the sake of public good ought at the moment to be kept secret. But he will not urge the adoption of it without either alleging such grounds as in his own judgement render it advisable; or such as he thinks render it advisable on the principles prevalent with those whom he ad dresses. In the latter case, however, he will not delude his hearers by giving them cause to believe that the reasons which he brings forward are those on which his own determination relics. He will contend with the candour and openness of a man anxious for the discovery of truth and the promotion of general good ; and will conscientiously avoid the artifices and exaggerations, which belong to the interested defender of a favourite scheme. He will avail himself of all fit opportunities of




avowing without obtrusion the (d) general principles which he holds on the subject under discussion, when it is a subject of moment, or on others nearly allied to it. He' will give every degree of reasonable weight to the arguments, and of reasonable credit to the motives, of his opponents.

He will check in himself, and study to repress in others, every ebullition of party spirit ; and will habituate himself to censure without acrimony, to refute without loss of temper, and to

(d) Such an avowal is productive of the most beneficial consequences, both immediately and in the way of example. It tends to lead the speaker and the auditors to consider subjects on an enlarged and comprehensive scale, and to a certain degree detached from the prejudices and circumstances of the moment. By exciting attention to fundamental principles, it places their excellence, if they are just, in a clearer light ; if false, it obviates the danger of men being surprised into a compliance with them. It likewise gives that publicity to the character and tenets of a Legislator, which affords the greatest satisfaction to his country, and has the best effects upon himself. Few circumstances have a more reasonable tendency ultimately to deprive persons in political life of public confidence, than their suffering themselves to be led by the heat of contest or the pressure of difficulties to speak lightly of general principles, and to profess to be guided entirely or chiefly by the incidents of the moment. VOL. I.


feel rope ;

feel himself victorious without pride or oftentation. He will not be ashamed to retract with manliness what he has erroneoufly asserted ; to acknowledge any change which further thought and information may have wrought in his views, either of the measure which he had countenanced, or of the distinct grounds on which he had conceived its propriety to be established ; and will not be deterred, by the fear of being reproached as inconsistent, from confeffing that he was less wise yesterday than he is to-day.


A considerate Nobleman will make a very sparing and cautious use of his privilege of voting in his absence by proxy; and will be scrupulous in receiving the proxy of another Peer. Indeed, the idea of a person giving his vote in the decision of a question which he has not heard debated, and may never have considered; in enacting or rejecting a Bill with the nature and object of which he is unacquainted ; at a time too perhaps when he is in another quarter of the globe, and unable to learn the present posture of affairs and circumstances either at home or in the rest of Eu

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