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be selected for qualities which befit a minister of the gospel, and be treated uniformly in a manner becoming his profession. Let the Nobleman avoid all culpable facility in the exercise of his right of nominating chaplains ; and when he bestows the title, whether as a mark of his favour or as a step to preferment, let him be careful that it be conferred only on such men, as he ought to distinguish by his countenance, or contribute to promote. Let his mode of life, while suited to his place in society, be under the control of an unfeigned spirit of moderation. Let him chase

away

the swarm of servile hangers-on, who delight to bask in the sunshine of Nobility, and to fasten on rich and powerful patrons; who search out the weak side of the man by whose bounty they are fed; and, inwardly despising while they would be thought to adore him, are ready to flatter his defects, to applaud his absurdities, to minister to his vices, to submit to the most ignominious and disgusting offices and compliances, in the hope of being rewarded with civil, military, or ecclesiastical preferment. Shunning the contagion of such associates, let him cultivate a familiar intercourse with men,

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from whom he may derive knowledge and information which may enable him to act with greater usefulness in his public capacity as a Legislator. The same pattern which from conscientious motives the master of the family displays in his own behaviour, habits, and pursuits, he will assiduously impress on every member of it. Not only in the common course of his proceedings, but even during the urgency of political occupations, let him consider the bosom of his family as designed to be the scene of his purest delights; and set his face against the present system of modish life, which renders the wife and the husband as it were strangers to each other. Separate ha-. bits, separate establishments, separate sets of acquaintance, gradually lead to separate pursuits, inclinations, and interests. The ties of domestic intercourse are broken ; connubial affection declines ; principle may remain, but fondness is gone; and when indifference or disgust has taken the place of fondness, principle has lost one of its most powerful collateral supports. Nor is this all. Parental regard decays; and parental duties are forgotten : the chil. dren, committed to uninspected teachers, hear

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little from either parent but censures of the other, and thus are trained in the habit of despising both; and learn betimes to consider the marriage state as a state of vexation, or at least as one in which the permanence of mutual love would be thought of by none but those who are ignorant of the world. These evils are not confined to the Nobility ; they extend to Commoners who move in the same fafhionable circle. They are noticed in this place, partly because they attach chiefly on the Nobility; and partly because the influence of persons in that class is peculiarly adapted either to encourage or to check their progress. In the partner of his honours and of his influence the Nobleman will find, or he will, strive to create, a partner of his laudable views in domestic life, and an assistant in carrying them into effect. He will inspire his children from

. their earliest youth with a love for the same virtuous principles which guide his own actions and by a judicious choice and solicitous obfervance of the instructors to whom the care of their education is committed, and by a truly paternal attention to their conduct when first introduced into the world, will train them in 4

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those studies, and lead them betimes to those attainments, which may qualify them to fill their destined stations in society with advantage to their country, and inward satisfaction to themselves,

CHAP

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The principle of Representation, though

, too obvious to have been altogether overlooked by the Republics of antiquity; and though occasionally adopted by them (a) in their transactions with each other as independent communities; does not appear to have been established as a part of their internal Constitution. In the infancy of their power, the smallness of the number of citizens, and the contiguity of habitation essential to their security, enabled them to collect together for public deliberation without inconvenience. In process of time, when, from the increase of population and the extension of territory, the mass of freemen fwelled to a larger and a still larger size; when the confusion, the prejudices, the venality, the

а

(a) As in the Council of the Amphyctyons.

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