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by connivance (c) any indefensible proceedings of his adherents on his behalf. On the contrary, he will previously settle with his supporters and agents the principles on which the election is to be conducted ; and will give it in charge to them, if such injunctions appear necessary, to abstain from all unjustifiable artifices, by which they may have been accustomed to forward the interest of their favourite candidate. He will explicitly make known to them his determination neither to fulfil

any engagements, nor repay any disbursements, of an improper nature, which may be incurred by them; and after the election, if occasion should require, he will prove his own sincerity, and discourage future committees from venturing


(c) In elections for boroughs, some of the constituents have been known to make a trifling nominal subscription, under cover of which much illegal treating is carried on; while the subscription paper is to be produced, if circumstances should require that step, as evidence to the House of Commons that the candidate had no concern in the entertainments. It is highly necessary that he should forbid such practices from the beginning; as his committee will generally act just as they think expedient for his interests, and give him no information of their transactions until the whole business is concluded. VOL. I. 0


on misconduct, by resolutely persisting in his purpose. He will avail himself of no unfair or ungenerous advantages over his opponent ; he will discountenance every kind of tumult or riot; every thing that partakes of calumny, of illiberality, or of rancour.

He will endeavour, not from private motives alone, but on the general grounds of public good, to keep down the expences of both parties during the election. He will not prolong the contest a moment for the fake of harassing his antagonist: and if at any period of it, circumstances themselves, or his views of circumstances, should be so far changed as to convince him that duty requires him to desist; he will not hesitate to relinquish the most flattering prospects, or even the absolute certainty of success.

The temptations incident to candidates in general frequently become stronger and more numerous in the case of him, who, uniting his interest with that of another candidate, proceeds hand in hand with him in the common cause. Should ignorance, or thoughtlessness, or want of principle lead the one to


act in any respect amiss ; the example presents itself in a garb particularly ensnaring to the other. He is urged to acquiesce in it, if not by the direct solicitations of the friends of his associate, or by those of his associate himself, yet by motives of personal advantage ; by diffidence and timidity ; and by false delicacy towards his colleague, and an unwillingness to do any thing which may seem to imply a

a censure on the conduct, or may be likely to prejudice the interest, of the person with whom he has entered into confederation. Let every candidate beware of entering into partnership with another, whose principles respecting the moral duties to be practised at elections differ from his own. Let every one remember that a clear explanation, at the outset of such a partnership, of his own opinions and resolutions is among the best methods of guarding himself against the danger of unwarrantable compliances; and also of refuting the charge of deserting the cause of his associate, if he should be called upon for concurrence and support which it would be criminal to give, or should honestly declare his objections 0 2



to existing practices, when he could not innocently shut his

and remain silent. The candidate who shall astonish his friends and his enemies by practising the rules of uprightness and plain dealing towards both, inust prepare himself to hear his ignorance of the world lamented by the one and derided by the other. It is very possible that his sincerity may cost him a number of votes : and for this loss his mind ought to be prepared. It is possible too that it may procure him an accefsion of independent and zealous friends. If united with judgement it will rarely prove the cause of his defeat, except in absolutely venal boroughs ; though it will almost always be represented as such by those who are hackneyed in the maneuvres of elections. At all events, it is better to act conscientiously and lose the day, than to gain it by acting otherwife. The main business of every man is to obtain the approbation of his Maker. To this end it is necessary that in all his conduct hę should be pure, upright, and sincere : it is not neceffary that he should be a Member of the House of Commons.


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When the contest is terminated, on whatever side the victory may have fallen, he will strive to moderate, and, if it be practicable, to extinguish in his adherents that virulent spirit of party, which, however frequently it may infect the candidate himself, generally rages with more bitterness in the bosom of his friends. He will teach them by his own example, that every degree of warmth should subside when the collision which produced it is at an end; and he will use the moft itrenuous and unremitting efforts to disarm the resentment which they may be disposed to entertain against their inferiors and dependents, who have exercised in support of the opposite interest a right which the Constitution has entrusted to their own discretion. And he will also beware that no local custom, no inadvertence on his part, no persuasion on the part of others, lead him to remunerate his voters, whether by entertainments, by distributing (d) money, or in any


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(d) The custom of giving money to the voters, after the time for presenting petitions against the return of Mem. bers is elapsed, prevails in fome boroughș. In some, moņey is given to each individual voter : in others, the candi. date, after paying the ordinary expences is directed to 03

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