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by influencing elections, bribing Members of Parliament, or hiring newspaper-writers and pamphleteers to spread direct or indirect falsehoods in his favour, and misrepresent and vilify his opponents.
If money to be disbursed in secret services at home or abroad be committed to his disposal ; he will faithfully abstain, whether the sum be limited or not, whether the due application of it be or be not enforced by an oath (d), from expending any part of it for purposes either inorally unjustifiable, or contrary the import of the trust confided to him. And if political expediency should tempt him to practise, directly or through intermediate agents, on the avarice of the subjects of foreign powers, in order to obtain information, or to derive some other advantage to his country from their treachery; let hi'n consider what his own feelings would be, were a similar offer made to himself; and, by the result of that consideration, be admonished to reverence and to apply the universal
(d) The money employed for secret service at home may not exceed 10,000l. per annum. The sum to be employed for secret service abroad is not limited by law : but the Secretary of State for the foreign department acts, in difposing of it, under the responsibility of an oath.
precept of Christianity, never to do evil for the sake of attaining even the most laudable and beneficial ends.
From principles of duty, which in this and in almost every other instance evidently goes hand in hand with policy, he will rather stimulate his co-adjutors to a diligent performance of their respective functions, than seek to alsume to himself consequence and credit by intruding into every province and department. Nothing excites more jealousy and ill-will than this meddling spirit ; or more speedily extinguishes that official emulation, from which, if properly cherished and directed, the highest advantage may result to the public service. But let not caution to avoid the error under consideration lead to the opposite ex
It has been known to happen, when the Cabinet has consisted of many members, that those among them who have been the chief conductors of the affairs of Government, being unwilling to seem to interfere in matters committed to the management of their colleagues, have abstained, through a supposed point of honour, from making the enquiries
which were absolutely necessary to give them a comprehensive knowledge of the state and distribution of the public force, and of other particulars of prime importance.
4. In selecting and digesting the measures which he is to bring forward, he will avail himself of every fit mode of obtaining previous information ; and of guarding against those
; objections which might either prevent the accomplishment of the plan, or impede its success when established. He will carefully subdivide his work, and allot different branches of investigation to able and confidential men; enjoining them however to lay the result before him for his cool confideration and final judgement, before a single step be taken to carry the project into execution. At all times this precaution is requisite, to secure him from suddenly finding himself responsible for a measure which he disapproves : but it is altogether indispensable, when the friend whom he has employed is a comrade in office, and one who differs from himself in some leading principle of politics ; left, having advanced blindfolded, he should be ashamed to recede when his eyes
are opened; or, if he should honestly dare to draw back, should incur the degrading imputation of rashness, of inconstancy, or of acting in repugnance to his promise and his conviction.
In like manner, and under the fame previous injunctions, he may with great advantage direct some intelligent friends to sit as a Grand Jury on each of the numerous schemes continually suggested to him ; whose verdie
may either throw out the Bill, or pronounce the matter deserving of a closer enquiry.
He will study the genius, the temper, the opinions, the prejudices, and the habits of the various classes of the community. A circumspect regard to these particulars, attainable only by an habitual and intimate acquaintance with them, is of extreme importance towards enabling a Minister to devise and establish meafures of general utility ; to correct inveterate evils ; to palliate what he cannot cure ; to distinguish what is practicable from what is impracticable; and to frame provisions by which a plan, deemed of the latter description
by hasty and fuperficial observers, may at length be proved to belong to the former.
He will be desirous rather of a good name than of a great name. In choosing his objects he will act, not with an eye to their temporary lustre, but with a systematic attention to their intrinsic worth. He will not consider the wealth of the Nation as of greater moment than its virtue ; nor its grandeur than its happiness. He will search into the various openings for improvements of every kind, which the circumítances of the different foreign poffefsions belonging to Great Britain may afford. In recommending to public encouragement, arts, sciences, and national institutions, he will give a decided preference to those which evidently have a moral tendency, over those which are calculated only for the ornament and embellishment of life. He will not strive to raise to an unfair pre-eminence in the public esteem, nor to promote at the expence of general good the objects lying immediately within his own department. But whatever measure his duty requires him to pursue, he will pursue uniformly and con