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other. The influence of these principles will be particularly manifest in his caution with respect to the commencement and prolongation of wars.

Conscious that self-defence, or the defence of the just cause of an ally, is the only ground on which hostilities can be vindicated; conscious too that however prosperous the event may be, little benefit will result to the thousands by whose exertions, wounds and sufferings it has been purchafed ; and that however apparent may be the guilt of the Governors of the enemy, the punishment of it chiefly falls on their ignorant and unoffending subjects: he will never enter into a contest without a firm conviction that it is both equitable and necessary ; nor ever continue it a moment after reasonable reparation and security can be obtained. In forming a treaty of alliance, he will explain his sentiments on thele topics with the utmost perspicuity; and will never pledge his country to any measure which seems likely to lead her in the end to become an accomplice in the ambitious views of her confederates, by fupporting them in unprovoked wars; or to comply with the suggestions of their revenge or their timidity, by continuing to profecute wars originally indispensable,



after proper terms of pacification have been offered or would be accepted by their adverfaries. He will gladly employ the good offices of his country in mediating peace between contending powers abroad, without rafhly endangering its own tranquillity. If, during his administration, he is called upon to fulfil an engagement with a foreign power, contracted by fome of his predecessors in office, which he perceives to be radically unjust; whatever may be the hazard to himself, he will refuse to comply. For is not he apprized that justice, fanctioned alike by natural reason and revealed religion, pronounces every covenant void, whether entered into by an individual or by a nation, which opposes her inviolable and antecedent laws? The house-breaker, who has promised his affistance in a burglary; the assassin, who has engaged to perpetrate a murder; is he bound, is he at liberty, to perform the contract ? Nations are in this respect individuals to each other. It is also to the nation, as well as to the individual, that Religion addresses her command: “Thou shalt lóve thy neighbour as thyself; and do unto others as thou wouldest have others, do into thee."

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Attention to the claims of mutual benevolence, and to the general happiness of mankind, will influence an upright Minister in adjusting treaties of commerce with foreign countries ; and prompt him to adopt such regulations as may be practicable for mitigating the horrors of future wars. A spirit of universal goodwill, strengthened and roused to action by a sense of Christian duty, will lead him to pro mote the discovery of unknown regions, and the civilization of their barbarous inhabitants. Considering himself as the Representative of the Public, considering the whole People as it were embodied in his person, and capable only through him of exercising an enlarged philanthropy; he will look through the world with a discerning and judicious eye, in order to select proper objects to whom he may dispense their charity, and pour out the overflowings of domestic prosperity and affluence.

III. Under this head we are, in the first place, to advert to the motives by which a Minister ought to be actuated in estimating the propriety of resigning: and secondly, to the line of conduct to be adopted after his resignation,

1. Regard


1. Regard to the public good displaying itself in a fair and disinterested examination of every circumstance of the case, will determine a conscientious Minister with respect to the duration of his continuance in office. Exempt from personal views, unbiased by solicitude for the aggrandizement of his family and friends, he will never feek to retain his post by ungenerous acts and disgraceful compliances ; nor resort to sinister means of rendering his aslistance necessary to his Sovereign, or to his colleagues. Nor, on the other hand, will he

, relinquish his station, from a dread of the odium or responsibility attached to measures in which he has acquiesced. He will not abandon a declining Ministry with a view to returning into office, after a short interval, with the prevailing party. Neither will he seek, by resigning, or by threatening to resign, to embarrass the proceedings of the Cabinet, through personal animosity towards some of its principal members. He will not feel himself at liberty to co-operate with an Administra- . tion whose fundamental system of policy he disapproves, whose most important measures he is unable to support. He will not remain an inefficient spectator of the progress of plans


in the formation of which he is not allowed an influence proportioned to his responsibility. He will not force his services on the public by the strength of his coadjutors and connections, if he perceives that, however generally his Fellow-minifters may be approved, he is himself unsupported by the confidence of the People. While his judgement and his conscience give their concurrence to the leading principles and proceedings of the other executive Ministers of the Crown, he will by no means think that differences of opinion on inferior points indispensably require him to fecede. Nor will he deem himself necessarily obliged to retire by a parliamentary defeat, not even if it relates to a measure ftrialy ministerial, while on the whole he feels himself strong in national approbation. In many

cases a seceffion on either of these grounds would be altogether unwarrantable. It might effect the difsolution of a Ministry, liable indeed to human error in particular instances, yet eminent above their competitors in uprightness and wisdom ; discredited, it may be, by an occasional unpopular plan, but regarded by the country at large as the sheet anchor of its hopes. It might open the doors of office to ignorant, faithless,


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