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and rapacious partisans ; who, before they could be expelled, might overthrow the wiseft institutions of their predecessors; might lay the foundations of their own future power by Acts of Parliament, specially directed to that end, and by lavishing public money grants and reversions ; or might even endeavour to secure the permanence of their present authority by involving the Nation in foreign and domestic broils.

A wise and conscientious man will not endanger his character by continuing to bear a part in an Administration, which labours under a general ftigma of corruption or imbecility ; unless he be able to rescue himself from the charge, and to preserve that confidence and esteem of the community, which are alike effential to the success of his present and future exertions in its service. Yet he will not on the other hand be such a niggard of his fame, as to be unwilling to submit to the risk of some temporary odium ; of some specious imputations, even, it may be, on the moral rectitude, as well as on the wisdom of his conduct ; if by that risk he can purchase the success of some momentous undertaking, and convert personal

uneasiness

uneasiness into a source of happiness to his country.

He will not deem the care of his health and private concerns an excuse for any degree of remifsness in attending to the duties of his station, unless such remissness was allowed by competent authority previously to his acceptance of the office, or as speedily afterwards as it took place; and adequate provisions were adopted to prevent any injury resulting on the whole from it to the public service. But if those provisions failed to answer the end proposed, he will feel it his duty to devise an effectual remedy, or immediately to resign his post. It is possible in particular emergences that the public service may inevitably sustain some degree of detriment by his continuance in office, and a less than it would receive from his resigning at the moment. In that case, if clearly recognized by the proper judges, he may conscientioully retain his situation while the emergency fubfifts.

yet

When he is once persuaded, on balancing the arguments on both sides, that duty fummons him to retire, he will obey the call with

alacrity alacrity and cheerfulness; and will not cling to his office with that stubborn pertinacity, which argues a man unworthy to hold what he shews himself fo reluctant to quit.

2. When divested of his employment, whether he withdraws from the busy world into the shade of privacy, or continues to serve his country as a Member of Parliament; he will arm his breast against the stings of unsuccessful ambition; and purify it from every emotion of bitterness and resentment against those who occasioned or who have profited by his fall. If he continues to act his part on the political fage, he will be on his guard against the bias of a secret hankering after emolument and power, usually predominant in those who have once been in possession of high official situations, and the most predominant in those who have occupied them for the longest time. He will not frame his parliamentary conduct with an insidious view to regain the eminence from which he has been cast down; he will not seek popularity by disingenuous artifices; he will not hoist a standard to collect the discon. tented, nor present himself as a leader to the factious. He will support, from his heart,

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every measure of his successors which promises to promote the general welfare; however evidently it may contribute to raise them in the public estimation, and consequently to obe struct the return of himself and his friends to the helm of Government. When their proceedings are unjustifiable and unwise, he will oppose them with steady perseverance ; but so as to prove that he opposes not the Members, but the Politics of Administration. He will reflect that his country, though no longer en. trusting him with the supreme direction of her affairs, regards him, in consequence of the station which he has filled, as in some measure the appointed inspector and superintendant of the present Ministers. The duties of that honourable employment he will vigilantly and faithfully discharge. But he will discharge them as a public servant exercising a public trust. He will not harass his competitors, victorious in the contest for popular favour, with vexatious and unmerited oppofition; nor, by thwarting their views and obstructing their plans, revenge on the Nation at large his private wrongs and his private disappointments.

СНАР. CH A P. VIII.

ON THE DUTIES OF NAVAL AND MILITARY

OFFICERS.

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THAT

an individual may resort to the use of force in behalf of himself, or of others not averse to receive his assistance, when force is necessary for the purpose of repelling or of preventing oppression, or of obtaining reparation for injuries sustained, is one of the fundamental principles of morality suggested by natural reason. It is a principle which may be applied separately and successively to the case of every individual ; and, consequent

, ly, to the individuals composing a Nation. Hence appears the natural right of a Nation to enter, under certain circumstances, into a war against other Nations in support of its own rights, or of the rights of other communities whom it undertakes to protect. Hence too appear the limits by which that right is naturally circumscribed. Neither the uncon

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nected

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