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hot compel nor delude individuals to violate their neutrality towards his enemies by abetting, directlyor indirectly, his hoftile operations. He may not infringe neutral property by fea or by. land, nor detain or purchase it by compulsion; except in cases wherein the legality of such measures was previously recognised by. the neutral state. He may not attack his adversaries, nor seize their property, in disregard of the privileges of neutral lands, coasts, and


bad management, were suffered to lie in our harbours till both vessels and cargoes were perishing. The consequence was, that on account of a very few articles the ship's voyage was stopped ; and a host of enemies raised up against us, which at last ended in an armed neutrality. We were in the end obliged not only to purchase every article of the cargoes; but to pay heavy demurrage, and also compensation for the damage which the ships received, to an enormous amount. Some of the ships remained twenty-one months in our ports before they were brought to trial ; although a short and obvious plan (which would at once have ensured the seizure of the objectionable articles on the arrival of the vessels in port, and the immediate liberation of the ships without the charges and delay of trials in the Court of Admiralty, and would thus have prevented the vast expences and other disagree

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harbours, whatever advantage we might hope thus to obtain for (12) himself or for his country.

4. It remains to subjoin a few brief re. marks relating to the conduct of an Officer in private life.

They who escape the vices peculiar to their


able consequences which resulted to this country from method actually followed) was proposed from the proper quarter.

(n) There are various cases of captures, some respecting neutral rights and immunities, others not, in which a Naval Officer will naturally be under a temptation of seeing the circumstances too strongly in his own favour. It may be doubtful whether the vessel taken be neutral property or not; whether it was not seized within so small a distance from a neutral coast, that the captor is bound to relinquish it; whether it was not taken after the commencement of a truce; whether other vessels were not actually in fight at the time of the capture, so as to be entitled to a share in the prize; whether, if it be a retaken ship, it was not in the enemy's posesion merely for so short a time, that it should be restored to the original owner. In these and all fimilar situations let an Officer carefully guard against the bias to which he is subject; and shew himself aware that the rights of others, whoever they may be, are no less sacred than his own.




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profession, cannot avoid the habits which it naturally produces. It may be observed, with regard to the professions of which we are now treating (and a similar reflection might be

applied to others), that some of the habits which they occasion, and even require, become vices when they are transferred from the camp and the quarter-deck to the walks of social and domestic life. And thither they will certainly, though perhaps imperceptibly, be transferred, unless active care be employed to confine them to their proper sphere. He who has been long accustomed to the exercise of undisputed command, is in danger of expecting from his family and dependents a mechanical submission to his inclinations, and an unbounded deference to his opinions; or at least of tarnishing the character of the Master, the Parent, and the Husband, by the authoritative demeanour and peremptory tone of the Officer. He who has been familiarised to the frequent change of place and company experienced by persons in the Navy and Army, is liable to harass those who are connected with him, by indulging a roving and unfettled disposition; to depress them by discontent at what he terms the dul


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ness of retirement; or to ruin them by espensive efforts to enliven it. And he who has been used to pay that attention to personal air and appearance which is thought requisite on the parade, has but a step to take to the affectation and fopperies of dress; and it is well if he has not taken it already.

When an Officer is not called into employment, a portion of the leisure which he enjoys should be allotted to the study of his profession. Otherwise, when he returns into aclive service, his associates will probably perceive, if he should not make the discovery himself, that he has rapidly declined in knowledge, alacrity, and merit. This too is the time for storing his mind with other attain. ments in science, in history, in useful and elegant literature; which cannot be fully acquired, though they neither need nor ought to be neglected, during the shorter intermissions of professional avocations. In the intervals of garrison duty, and the quiet of a voyage, a package of well-chosen books, not bulky enough to occasion inconvenience, will impart much substantial information; and prevent the


languor of many a tedious hour.
a . As

young men are frequently placed in the Navy and Army before their education is properly completed, every subsequent opportunity of improving the mind ought to be turned to the best advantage. A Military Officer in

quarters in time of peace has many ample opportunities ; and the due application of them will preserve him from the idle, finical, and disfipated habits, which otherwise he will scarcely fail to contract. . He who belongs to the Naval profession, when not engaged in real service, is generally detached altogether from professional business; and therefore feels himself at liberty to devote his thoughts and time to some other liberal employment, until his country calls again for his exertions in her defence. But the Military Officer is commonly exposed during peace to the disadvantage of being so far occupied by the duties, or at least by the forms, of his profession, as to be precluded from undertaking any other settled pursuit; while at the same time the greater part of his hours remains vacant, and open to the intrusion of indolence and vice,

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