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those decisive methods of detection to which recourse would at once be had in despotic Governments, would not here be endured ; and partly because mistaken conceptions of honour, resulting from a general consciousness of freedom, have attached an unmerited degree of odium to the character of an informer, even if he should have been wholly actuated by the purest motives. But if once the lively example, the silent but marked dislike, the calm but pointed animadversions of the Monarch shall have branded a vicious practice as scandalous and contemptible in the royal estimation ; ; it will speedily become disreputable in that of the public. Numbers, whom inadvertence or fashion had engaged in it, will abandon it; and those who are too hardened or too infatuated to be reclaimed, will shrink from nou tice, and strive to bury the infamy of guilt in scenes remote from general inspection, instead of corrupting society by Ahamelessly obtruding their vices, and braving the laws of God and their Country in open day. But to render the influence of the Sovereign in promoting religion and morality widely and permanently efficacious, it is indispensably requisite that it


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be exerted with prudence, with perseverance, with impartiality. The world must be convinced that the practice has drawn down disapprobation on the man, not the man on the practice. It is almost needless to add, that evils the most alarming will spread with rapidity to an indefinite extent, if the prevailing vices of the times be fanctioned by the conduct or tolerated by the indifference of the King, and thus tacitly at least recommended to universal imitation.

There are various methods in addition to those already mentioned, by which the Sove. reign has it in his power to contribute most effectually to the true welfare of his subjects. The success of the most useful institutions for the administration of relief to the poor and comfort to the afflicted; the establishment of the most promising plans for the advancement of morals, for the improvement of the police, for the encouragement of industry, will frequently depend on the aid which they derive partly from his personal munificence, and still more from the general favour and credit which his protection will ensure to them.


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The simple intimation of his sentiments will often prove sufficient to ensure those reforms in corporations, in schools, in universities, and other public establishments, necessary to remove the defects which the lapse of time invariably discovers or produces ; and which the sincere friends of the respective institutions may have long beheld with fruitless anxiety.

The distribution of titles, and of orders of merit, regulated by the dictates of reason and conscience, will have a visible effect on the conduct of the numerous candidates who afpire to obtain them. And the nation at large will receive a deep and most desirable impresfion, when it shall see honours applied to their proper use, the reward of virtue and public desert. Sentiments of an opposite nature, equally unfavourable to public virtue and to the personal estimation of the Sovereign, will be no less deeply iinpressed on all ranks of society; if they shall behold him lavishing marks of diftinction on men who are devoid of private worth, and undistinguished by patriotic exertions.

Though Though the beneficial effects of the wise and upright conduct of the King in the cases which have been specified will principally be felt by the people over whom he reigns; yet it may materially conduce to the happiness of other nations, partly by setting before their eyes a pattern of what they are entitled to expeat from their own Governors, and partly by exciting those Governors to emulate so glorious an example. And as advances in science, and discoveries in arts, are much more speedily borrowed and more easily domesticated than the improvement of laws and the reformation of manners; the efforts of a King of Great Britain in the encouragement of genius and learning are scarcely less interesting, in some instances they may even be more interesting, to foreigners than to his own subjects. It falls within his immediate province to patronize societies instituted for the cultivation of natural and experimental philosophy ; to encourage inventions which may facilitate the progress or increase the excellence of manufactures; to countenance the professors of manly and liberal arts ; to animate every department of literature ; to excite by personal favour, by inci


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dental rewards, and perhaps by the institution of honorary and pecuniary prizes, the ex. ertions of all who have distinguished or are capable of distinguishing themselves by meritorious studies and pursuits; and occasionally to direct their labours into those channels, in which they appear most likely to promote the public welfare. And it is peculiarly his office to avail himself of the opportunities which result from his supreme direction of the British Navy, to explore untraversed oceans, to bring unknown regions to light; and, while he is laying the foundations of a commercial intercourse which may enrich the distant posterity of his subjects, to introduce among savage tribes the immediate blessings of civilization and christianity.

It does not fall within the plan of the prefent work to recite at greater length, and pursue to a more minute detail, the effects which a King may produce on the manners and condition of the people committed to his care. To the historian belongs the cheering office of distinctly tracing the progress of those streams of happiness which a Sovereign dispenses


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