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throughout his realms, who, regarding all his subjects as his children, watches over them with unwearied and impartial affection ; who scrupulously observes their rights and liberties; obeys the laws, and causes others to obey them ; rejects the baits of foreign as well as of domestic ambition; cherishes useful industry, learning, and science; eradicates ancient prejudices ; abolishes immoral customs; difcountenances corruption, luxury, and vice; and by public encouragement and private example inculcates the important lesson, that the welfare of a nation is to be sought, like that of an individual, in the cultivation of christian virtue. On the historian also refts the painful talk of delineating the miseries of that kingdom, whose Monarch studies to aggrandize himself by encroaching on popular freedom, by fomenting party divisions, by holding up rewards to venal servility; who impoverishes his subjects by his profusion ; lavishes their wealth and their blood in unnecessary wars ; connives at the injustice of his ministers; fanctions the licentiousness of his court; and by the influence of personal irreligion saps the foundations of national morality,
The Monarch, who is truly anxious for the happiness of his people, will not satisfy himself with personally exercising his constitutional authority with a view to that object. He will endeavour to give his subjects every possible degree of assurance that the advantages, which they have enjoyed under his administration, shall be continued to them when he shall no longer fill the throne. Impressed with this patriotic desire, he will regard the education of his family, not merely with the common feelings of a father; but with the anxieties inseparable from the recollection that it is a measure which may involve the welfare of millions. He knows with what command, ing influence the conduct of persons allied to royalty affects all ranks of society. He knows not which, or how many, of his children may eventually wear the crown. then on their bosoms the importance, the dan, gers, and the duties, of the station in which they are born, and of the office to which they may fucceed. He will train them in the ftu. dies, habits, and occupations which may
inoft incline and enable them to be extensively useful. He will associate them with such friends
He will engrave
and companions as recommend to imitation purity of character by respectful freedom and attractive ingenuousness of manners. He will guard them against the servility of flatterers, and the busy artifices of the vicious. Above all things, he will imprint on their hearts the proofs and the precepts of christianity; and fix their thoughts and their solicitude on that impending day of enquiry and retribution, when all earthly distinctions shall be no more.
A King who in the discharge of his various functions shall thus labour to promote the happiness of man and the glory of God, will ensure to himself, not only a brighter crown hereafter, but an extent of present power greater perhaps than a despot ever knew, greater than a despot ever enjoyed in security. And it is a power which he need not blush to possess ; it is a lawful power ; it springs not from tyrannical edicts; not from the submisfion of bribed or intimidated senates ; but from the eager approbation and unbounded love of his people.
С НАР. CHAP. IV.
ON THE GENERAL DUTIES OF ENGLISHMEN
AS SUBJECTS AND FELLOW-CITIZENS.
HE first duty of a subject as such is to fulfil the engagements into which he has entered with his country. The engagements, by which a subject of this kingdom is bound, are ascertained by the ļaws of the land, and by those established usages, which, although they are not expressly recorded in any Aof Par
Act . liament, are recognized as fair inferences from existing Statutes, or have at least received from general consent the authority of positive Laws. These statutes and usages define the measure of obedience due from him to the State ; they de clare the several instances and degrees (a) in
(a) “ Political or civil liberty, which is that of a mem“ ber of society, is no other than natural liberty fo far re“ strained, and no further, as is necessary and expedient “ for the general advantage of the public.”—“Every “ man, when he enters into society, gives up a part of his
, “ natural liberty,” Blackft. Com. vol. i. p. 125.
which his natural rights are restrained ; and describe the civil rights assigned to him in
A detail of this immense and fluctuating mafs of particulars, however justly it might be required in a work professedly designed to convey legal knowledge, is not to be expected in a treatise which has moral instruction for its object, and addresses itself to readers of various descriptions. Yet there are some points too important to be dismissed without special observation. I shall therefore in the first place endeavour to state with precision the general obligation which the subject owes to his governors; and shall afterwards make some remarks on those more indeterminate duties, in which greater latitude is afforded for the exercise of his own discretion.
I. The obedience of the subject is immediately due to the existing Government in consequence of its possessing the delegated authority of the State. It is not however an obedience without limit: it is not due in any case in
. which it would be a breach of duty to God;