Volume of air required for drying rooms 66 66 66 46 V seam, Bead or W. Wages, Table of. Walls and windows, Diagram of heat loss through 66 66 .. foundation. 46 Wash basins Waste and vent pipe, Weight of brass soil 66 gases. Waterback connections, Multiple range. Water-closet floor slabs.. 66 66 PAGE 191 165 66 room, Proportion of radiating surface to. 105 262 Waterproofing pipes, and solder nipples, Brass soil. traps, Care of closets distribution in buildings. filtration 16 44 66 storage. gas Heat transmission through metals to 6. sprinkler tank, Pressures and quantities of... meters, Table of approximate deliveries of. Standard dimensions of wrought-iron steam, pipes, Air locks in. pressure proofing walls service pipes, Capacity of. 46 Table of capacity of Simple tests for drinking Cisterns for 66 Table of sizes of wooden 365 116 93 93 310 290 291 268 269 267 277 121 261 277 261 336 295 354 290 330 346 241 345 83 374 333 331 333 334 152 347 330 310 331 332 353 325 325 321 326 327 66 66 of air, Formula for volume and 66 soil, waste, and vent pipe 66 fireproofing materials. fireproof floors, Approximate .. sheet iron ::: 46 lead pipe soil, waste, and vent pipe 66 zinc, copper, and lead Troy White lead Wind pressure. 42 43 41 of cast-iron soil pipes. Table of 264 64 round galvanized-iron pipe, Table of. 238 sewer pipe, Table of sizes and 308 wrought-iron or steel drainage pipe, Table of 267 41 145 161 271 87 116 262 262 262 specific gravities of building materials, Wet return main, Definition of 46 returns. 46 46 66 66 seam, Angle. 46 Flush joint, Straight. joints •C Windows, Diagram of heat loss through walls and Wiped branch joint 66 flanged joint Sizes of supply 79 57 34 37 103 268 268 86 360 87 87 86 06 PAGE 280 82 178 for lead pipe, Length of 237 239 358 269 362 361 358 359 35 33 263 358 262 262 xlviii Wiping joints on tin pipe. Wooden beams, Safe uniformly distributed loads for 90 66 pipe 273 43 350 Woods, Table of weights and specific gravities of dry 273 steam, gas, and water pipe, Dimensions of INDEX. 66 46 standard. 44 tin N PAGE 350 122 Z. Zero, Absolute Zinc, copper, and lead, Weight of sheet 66 Sheet 152 351 351 98 358 272 PLUMBERS AND FITTERS' HANDBOOK. ARITHMETIC. SIGNS USED IN CALCULATION. + Plus, indicates addition; thus, 10+5 is 15. Minus, indicates subtraction; thus, 10-5 is 5. = ( ), [ ], { }, called parenthesis, bracket, and brace, respectively, have the same meaning, and signify that the operations indicated within them are to be performed first; or, if more than one is used, that indicated in the inner one is to be effected first. Thus, in the expression 5(7-2), the subtraction is to be made before multiplying by 5. Again, in the subtraction indicated the expression [a+(b)]. 4 within the parenthesis is made first; the remainder is added to a, and one-half the sum found. called the vinculum, is used for the same purpose as the parenthesis, but chiefly in connection with the sign V; thus, called the decimal point, is placed in a number conaining dec hals, to fix the value of the number; thus, 12.5 is 12 and 1.25 is 1 and; etc. 82 means that the number 8 is to be squared; thus, 82 = 8 X8 = 64. 1 83 means that the number 8 is to be cubed; thus, 83 X8 = 512. called the radical sign, means that some root of the expression under it is to be found; if used without a small index figure, it means square root; thus, 64 8. 3 V mean that the cube or the fourth root is to be found, the index figure indicating the root; thus, 27 = 3. : ::: means proportion; thus, 3: 4 :: 6: 8 is read 3 is to 4 as 6 is to 8. Instead of the sign, the equality sign : often substituted; thus, 3:46:8. is 0 / 11 mean degrees, minutes, and seconds; as, 60° 15′ 15′′, which is read 60 degrees, 15 minutes, 15 seconds. /// also mean feet and inches; thus, 7' 6" is read 7 feet 6 inches. (read pi) means the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter and = 3.1416. Σ (read sigma) means summation; thus, (a + b) means that there are several values for both a and b, and that the sum of all is to be found. FRACTIONS. It is taken for granted that the reader knows how to perform the common operations of addition, subtraction, etc., where only whole numbers are used; but, when there are mixed or fractional numbers, a little refreshment of the memory may be desirable to some; hence, a little space is devoted to this elementary branch of arithmetic. COMMON FRACTIONS. The numerator of a fraction is the number above the bar; and the denominator is the number beneath it; thus, in the fraction 4, 3 is the numerator and 4 is the denominator. Two or more fractions having the same denominator are said to have a common denominator. By "reducing fractions to a common denominator" is meant finding such a denominator as will contain each of the given denominators without a |