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SURVEYOR'S SQUARE MEASURE.

625 square links (sq. li.)

16 square rods..

10 square chains..

640 acres

36 square miles (6 mi. square)
1 sq. mi.
= 640 A.

60 seconds (") 60 minutes

1,728 cubic inches (cu. in.).......

27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet 24 cubic feet

90 degrees... 360 degrees.

=

1 cir.

=

6,400 sq. ch.

102,400 sq. rd.

64,000,000 sq. li.

The acre contains 4,840 sq. yd., or 43,560 sq. ft., and in form of a square is 208.71 ft. on a side.

=

16 ounces

112 pounds

20 cwt, or 2,240 lb.

=

1 cu yd. 27 cu. ft.

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CUBIC MEASURE.

360° =

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MEASURE OF ANGLES OR ARCS.
= 1 minute

1 degree

1 rt. angle or quadrant

1,296,000"

=

1 square rod

1 square chain
1 acre

=

1 cubic foot

1 cubic yard..

1 cord.

1 perch

= 46,656 cu. in.

1 square mile..........

1 township

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..sq.rd. ...... sq. ch. ...A.

.sq. mi. .Tp.

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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

437.5 grains (gr.)

1 ounce

16 ounces

1 pound

100 pounds

1 hundredweight

20 cwt., or 2,000 lb...

1 ton....

1T. 20 cwt. 2,000 lb. 32,000 oz. = 14,000,000 gr. The avoirdupois pound contains 7,000 grains.

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..cu. ft. .cu. yd.

..cd. .P.

cir.

.Oz. ...lb.

cwt.

.T.

LONG TON TABLE.

1 pound

1 hundredweight......cwt.

1 ton.

.lb.

T.

24 grains (gr.)
20 pennyweights.

12 ounces........

2 pints (pt.)

8 quarts

4 pecks..

===

Gill

Pint

Quart

TROY WEIGHT.

= 1 pennyweight
= 1 ounce

1 pound

1 lb. 12 oz. = 240 pwt.

Diam.

13 in.

3 in.

3 in.

=

DRY MEASURE.

1 quart

1 peck

1 bushel

5,760 gr.

1 bu. = 4 pk.

32 qt.= 64 pt.

The U. S. struck bushel contains 2,150.42 cu. in. = 1.2444 cu. ft. Its dimensions are, by law, 18 in. in diameter and 8 in. deep. The heaped bushel is equal to 14 struck bushels, the cone being 6 in. high. The dry gallon contains 268.8 cu. in., being bu.

For approximations, the bushel may be taken at 1 cu. ft.; or a cubic foot may be considered of a bushel.

The British bushel contains 2,218.19 cu. in. = 1.2837 cu. ft. 1.032 U. S. bushels.

LIQUID MEASURE.

1 pint

1 quart

1 gallon

1 barrel

4 gills (gi.)

2 pints

4 quarts.

31 gallons

2 barrels, or 63 gallons 1 hogshead 1hhd. 2 bbl. = 63 gal. 252 qt. 501 pt. 2,016 gi. The U. S. gallon contains 231 cu. in. =.134 cu. ft., nearly; or 1 cu. ft. contains 7.480 gal. The following cylinders contain the given measures very closely:

=

Diam.

7 in.

8 gallons

14in.

10 gallons 14 in.

Gallon

..pwt.

- OZ. .lb.

Height

3 in.

3 in.

6 in. With water at its maximum density (weighing 62.425 lb. per cu. ft.), a gallon of pure water weighs 8.345 lb.

.qt.

.pk.

..bu.

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pt.

qt.

gal.

bbl.

hhd.

Height 6 in.

12 in.

15 in.

For approximations, 1 cu. ft. of water is considered equal to 7 gal., and 1 gal. as weighing 8 lb.

The British imperial gallon, both liquid and dry, contains 277.274 cu. in. .16046 cu. ft., and is equivalent to the volume of 10 lb. of pure water at 62° F. To reduce U. S. to British liquid gallons, divide by 1.2. Conversely, to convert British into U. S. liquid gallons, multiply by 1.2; or, increase the number of gallons .

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THE METRIC SYSTEM.

The metric system is based on the meter, which, according to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Report of 1884, is equal to 39.370432 inches. The value commonly used is 39.37 inches, and is authorized by the U. S. government. The meter is defined as one ten-millionth the distance from the pole to the equator, measured on a meridian passing near Paris.

There are three principal units-the meter, the liter (pronounced lee-ter), and the gram, the units of length, capacity, and weight, respectively. Multiples of these units are obtained by prefixing to the names of the principal units the Greek words deca (10), hecto (100), and kilo (1,000); the submultiples, or divisions, are obtained by prefixing the Latin words deci (), centi (1), and milli (1). These prefixes form the key to the entire system. In the following tables, the abbreviations of the principal units of these submultiples begin with a small letter, while those of the multiples begin with a capital letter; they should always be written as here printed.

10 millimeters (mm.)..

10 centimeters

10 decimeters

10 meters.

10 decameters

10 hectometers

MEASURES OF LENGTH.

= 1 centimeter
1 decimeter

1 meter

1 decameter

1 square meter

100 centares 100 ares

• 100 hectares

MEASURES OF SURFACE (NOT LAND).

1 square centimeter.
1 square decimeter
1 square meter

MEASURES OF SURFACE (LAND).

100 square millimeters(mm2):
100 square centimeters.
100 square decimeters

= 1 hectometer
= 1 kilometer

10 milliliters (ml.) 10 centiliters

10 deciliters

10 grams
10 decagrams
10 hectograms
1,000 kilograms

=

10 milligrams (mg.) 10 centigrams

10 decigrams

1 centare

= 1 are.

=

=

MEASURES OF VOLUME.

1,000 cubic millimeters (mm3)- 1 cubic centimeter
1,000 cubic centimeters..
1 cubic decimeter.
1,000 cubic decimeters ..........= 1 cubic meter

.....

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.

= 1 centiliter
= 1 deciliter.
1 liter.

10 liters

10 decaliters

1 decaliter = 1 hectoliter

10 hectoliters.

= 1 kiloliter.

NOTE.-The liter is equal to 1 cubic decimeter..

1 hectare

1 square kilometer

MEASURES OF WEIGHT.

1 centigram. - 1 decigram

1 gram.

1 decagram

1 hectogram
1 kilogram
1 ton.

cm. dm.

m.

Dm. Hm.

Km.

cm2.

dm2.

m2.

ca. A.

Ha.

Km2.

cm3. ......dm3.

m3.

cl. dl.

.DI.

HI.

Kl.

cg. dg.

g.

.Dg. Hg.

.Kg.

T.

NOTE. The gram is the weight of 1 cubic centimeter of pure distilled water at a temperature of 39.2 F.; the kilogram is the weight of 1 liter of water; the ton is the weight of 1 cubic meter of water.

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