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McKinley, of Chicago; Charles F. Clyne, of Aurora; John M. Rapp, of Fairfield, and Edward J. Smejkal, of Chicago.
The committee met in Springfield, Illinois, on August 1, 1913, and organized by the election of Walter I. Manny as chairman, and Charles F. Clyne as secretary. At a subsequent meeting Speaker William McKinley was elected as vice-chairman.
The resolution creating the committee imposed on it two main duties: (1) to secure a more perfect system of accounting; and (2) to propose a general reorganization and consolidation of State offices, boards and commissions. After due consideration the committee agreed that the plan of administrative reorganization should precede the introduction of a comprehensive system of accounting. The latter is necessarily dependent on the system of organization; and to prepare a complete system of accounting would require a more detailed investigation than was possible with the funds and the time at the disposal of the committee. The committee have, therefore, given their main attention to the problem of administrative reorganization and consolidation. At the same time a preliminary study has been made of the present accounting methods; and a general basis for a proposed accounting system has been prepared, which has been worked out in detail for the correctional institutions of the State as a concrete illustration of the general plan.
METHODS OF INVESTIGATION.
The members of the committee, by reason of their service in the Fortyeighth and preceding General Assemblies, and particularly by reason of their service on appropriation committees, were familiar with the lack of systematic organization among the numerous State offices, boards and commissions, and were aware that new authorities had at times been created when the powers and duties of such authorities might have been more effectively organized in connection with already existing departments. They were also acquainted with the confusion resulting from this defective organization and with the difficulties of exercising adequate control over appropriations and expenditures.
The committee believed, however, that it should have as a basis for its work a more thorough and exact knowledge than was possessed by its members, of the existing State offices, boards and commissions, of the laws under which they operated, and of their internal organization, appropriations and work performed. After making some preliminary study of the situation in Illinois and neighboring states, the committee employed John A. Fairlie, Professor of Political Science in the University of Illinois, as director of its investigational work.
For this investigation, the numerous State offices, boards and commissions were combined into a number of groups into which they naturally fell, on the basis of their general functions, as follows:
Education (including Libraries and Scientific Surveys).
Charitable and Correctional Institutions.
Public Works and Buildings.
Labor and Mining Agencies.
Control of Corporations and Public Service Business.
The committee directed that the offices, boards and commissions as thus grouped be investigated and reported upon with reference to the statutes under which each is organized; its powers, duties and internal organization, as provided by law and as in fact exercised; its appropriations and expenditures; its relations with other offices, boards and commissions in law and in fact; the manner in which its activities are exercised; and how far its powers and duties as imposed by law or in fact exercised, overlap and duplicate the powers and duties as imposed by law upon or exercised in fact by other offices, boards and commissions; and also the similar laws and their operation in other states and countries; with recommendations for reorganization and consolidation.
In carrying out these investigations expert assistants have been employed, from the staff of the University of Illinois, from other universities and from those with practical experience in similar investigations. Each division of the work has been in direct charge of some one with special knowledge and fitness for the particular problem. In making their investigations, the director and the other investigators have consulted freely with the State officers, boards and commissions, and with other persons and organizations affected by or interested in the working of such services.
The director and these special investigators have made a series of valuable reports to the committee, which will be published separately and as appendices to this report. It is believed that these contain the most comprehensive survey ever made of the organization, powers and duties of the executive administration of any State government. These special reports include the following:
Revenue and Finance Administration, by John A. Fairlie, Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois.
The Accounts of the State of Illinois, by George E. Frazer, C. P. A. and Comptroller of the University of Illinois.
Classification of Accounts for Correctional Institutions, by Spurgeon Bell, formerly Secretary of the Chicago Commission on City Expendi tures.
Charitable and Correctional Institutions, by James W. Garner, Professor
of Political Science, University of Illinois.
Educational Administration, by John M. Mathews, University of Illinois. Labor and Mining Administration, by W. F. Dodd, Associate Professor
of Political Science, University of Illinois.
Agricultural Agencies, by James W. Garner, Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois.
Public Health Administration, by John M. Mathews, University of Illinois.
Supervision of Corporations, by Maurice H. Robinson, Professor of Indus
try and Transportation, University of Illinois.
Public Works, Parks and Buildings, by C. O. Gardiner, Municipal Reference Bureau, Cincinnati.
Military Administration, by Quincy Wright, University of Illinois.
Valuable assistance in drafting bills has also been given by Elmer M. Liessmann, attorney of Chicago; F. D. Bramhall, of the University of Chicago, and C. E. Woodward, of Ottawa, formerly in the office of the Attorney General.
MEETINGS AND PUBLIC HEARINGS.
Following its first meeting, a month after the adjournment of the General Assembly, the committee has held numerous sessions, increasing in frequency as the reports of investigations were submitted for consideration. Meetings have been held on the average twice each month, frequently at weekly intervals, and the later sessions have often continued for two days at a time.
As a result of the discussion of reports and recommendations during the first half of 1914, a series of tentative plans for the reorganization of State offices, boards and commissions were provisionally approved by the committee. On June 18, 1914, a brief preliminary report was issued by the committee, stating in general terms the existing conditions and the broad outlines of the committee's plans to combine and consolidate the numerous authorities into a limited number of executive departments.
Following the publication of this preliminary report, a series of public hearings were held by the committee, in Chicago and Springfield, for the further consideration of the tentative plans. Notice of these hearings was given in the public press; and special notices were sent to the State officers, and to organizations and individuals known to be interested in the work of particular groups of authorities.
At these public hearings, the following State officials, representatives of associations and organizations and others have appeared before the committee, and discussed the proposed plans for the reorganization of State administration in Illinois:
Edward F. Dunne, Governor.
Patrick J. Lucey, Attorney General.
George E. Cole, of the Constitutional Convention League.
Charles E. Richards, of the Chicago Association of Commerce and the Chicago Real Estate Board.
A. L. Strauss, of the Chicago Real Estate Board.
S. M. Singleton, of the Chicago Citizens' Association.
Peter White, of the City Club of Chicago.
H. E. Keeler, Director of the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency.
R. E. Blackwood, Secretary of the Illinois and Chicago Civil Service Reform Association.
J. H. Burdett, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission.
Penal and Reformatory Administration.
Archie L. Bowen, Executive Secretary of the Charities Commission. Fred J. Kern, Thomas O'Connor, Frank D. Whipp and James Hyland, members of the Board of Administration.
Albert Gravenhorst, Chairman of the Board of Managers of the Illinois State Reformatory.
William C. Graves, General Superintendent of the Illinois State Reforma
William V. Choisser, Warden of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary.
Francis G. Blair, State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Dr. David Felmley, President of the State Normal University at Normal.
Mrs. Laura M. Evans, member Board of Trustees of the University of
Professor Stephen A. Forbes, State Entomologist.
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, President of the Illinois State Historical Library Board of Trustees.
C. H. Rammelkamp, member of the Illinois State Historical Library Board of Trustees.
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary of the Illinois State Historical Society and Librarian of the Illinois State Historical Library.
J. Stanley Brown, member of the State Board of Education and Principal of the township high school at Joliet.
H. E. Legler, Librarian Chicago Public Library.
F. W. DeWolf, Director of the State Geological Survey.
James E. Quan, Chairman of the State Public Utilities Commission. Archibald McKinley, Attorney for the Insurance Department.
Labor and Mining Administration.
Judge J. B. Vaughn, Chairman of the Industrial Board.
Thomas H. Devlin, State Mine Inspector.
J. W. Starks, State Mine Inspector.
Lewis McGovern, member of the State Board of Arbitration.
Leo J. Winniecki, member of the State Board of Arbitration.
Ralph Allen and C. C. Pickett, members of the Board of Directors of the Illinois Farmers' Institute.
H. E. Young, member of the Board of Directors of the Illinois Farmers'
Institute and Editor of the Farmers' Review.
H. A. McKeene, Secretary of the Illinois Farmers' Institute.
A. N. Kildow, State Inspector of Apiaries.
Mr. Stone, of the State Beekeepers' Association.
John K. Segrave, Chief Clerk in the office of the Auditor of Public Accounts.
W. E. Baker, Marion Watson and H. F. Nightingale, members of the State Board of Equalization.
J. Frank Higgins, Printer Expert.
Edmund J. Roche, Department and Institution Auditor in Governor's Office.
Public Works Administration.
Arthur W. Charles, Chairman of the Rivers and Lakes Commission. LeRoy K. Sherman, member of the Rivers and Lakes Commission. James B. Dibelka, State Architect.
James P. Wilson and S. E. Bradt, members of the State Highway Commission.
Dr. John A. Robinson, President of the State Board of Health.
John B. Newman, Assistant State Food Commissioner.
Miss Adelaide M. Walsh, President of the State Board of Nurse Examiners.
Dr. Thomas H. Whalen, President of the Chicago Medical Society.
Dr. W. M. Honn, of the Legislative Committee of the Illinois Homeopathic Medical Association.
Dr. J. V. Fowler, of the Chicago Medical Society.
Dr. N. M. Eberhardt, of the Chicago Medical Society.
Dr. C. D. Pence, of the Illinois State Medical Society.
Dr. J. S. Nagel, of the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery.
Dr. Mrs. R. P. Barstow, of the Legislative Committee of the Illinois Homeopathic Medical Association.
Dr. H. T. Hazleton, Superintendent of the German-American Hospital. As a result of these conferences additional information was secured as to the operation of the present machinery of State Government. The tentative plans of the committee were further considered in the light of this information and the discussion at these meetings; and some changes have been made in the tentative proposals.
In its inquiries, investigations and public hearings, the committee has not found it necessary to exercise its authority to subpoena witnesses, or to compel the production of books, papers and documents. It has in the main found the State officers and their agents ready to appear voluntarily,
and to discuss the present organization and proposed changes, and to furnish information both orally and from their official records and reports.
It should be clearly understood that the work of the committee has not been undertaken with a view to the personal criticism either of particular officials or of present or past administrations. No single official or administration can be held responsible for the existing conditions as a whole. The fundamental difficulty lies in the defective organization provided by law. So, too, the findings and recommendations of the committee are made without reference to any personal or political results; but solely with reference to the inherent defects in the existing machinery and plans for a permanent reorganization of the State administration on a basis of efficiency and economy.
DEFECTS OF THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS.
As a result of its investigations, the committee finds that a condition of disorganization and confusion exists in the executive departments of the State Government which necessarily produces inefficiency and waste in the State services. The chart of State executive organization in Illinois, submitted herewith, will indicate this situation to some extent. This chart has been reduced to the simplest terms possible, in order to convey some definite impression. Any attempt to indicate differences of internal organization and all the inter-relations between different offices would have resulted in an utterly unintelligible diagram. But it is believed that the chart does emphasize the confusing number of separate offices directly related to the Governor; and the lack of any effective system of correlation or supervision. The main points in the indictment may be briefly summarized. There is unnecessary duplication of positions and salaries; not only in the chief officers of each separate bureau or board, but still more in their staffs of clerks and employees. But this is the smallest part of the loss. The work that is undertaken is not well done; and costs much more for the results obtained than with a more efficient organization. Supplies in many cases are purchased in small quantities for each office or institution, which could be secured at lower prices if purchased in larger quantities on contracts based on competitive bids, as is done by the Board of Administration for the charitable institutions. The absence of definite correlation and cooperation between the most closely related offices, necessarily leads to loss and inefficient works. The only supervision provided by law over most of the executive offices, boards and commissions, burdens the Governor with a mass of unnecessary detail which no single individual can effectively handle, and at the same time does not afford him either the time or the facilities for the proper determination of the more important questions of administrative and legislative policy. The present arrangements also fail to provide the General Assembly with adequate information or advice to enable it to perform its work wisely, either in making appropriations or in enacting substantive legislation. And while reports are made and published, they are so numerous and poorly organized that the general public fails to receive satisfactory information of the work that is done, and has no satisfactory means for fixing responsibility, or of discriminating between those officials who perform their work well and those who perform it poorly or not at all. Lack of Correlation.
Under the existing arrangements inefficiency and waste necessarily arise from the lack of correlation and cooperation in the work of different offices and institutions which are carrying out similar or closely related functions. There are separate boards for each of the State penitentiaries and reformatory and for each of the State normal schools. There are half a dozen boards dealing with agricultural interests; and about a score of separate labor agencies, including four boards dealing with mining problems and eight free employment offices, each substantially independent of each other. State finance administration is distributed between a number of elective and appointive officials and boards without concentrated responsibility. The supervision of corporations and of banks, insurance companies and public