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254. Linear Measures are used in measuring lengths and distances.

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The following are also used: 3 Barleycorns

= 1 Inch. Used by shoemakers. 4 Inches

= 1 Hand. Used to measure the height of horses. 6 Feet

=1 Fathom. Used to measure depths at sea. 3 Feet

1 Pace.

Used in pacing distances. 5 Paces

=1 Rod. S
8 Furlongs

1 Mile.
1.15 Statute Miles = 1 Geographical, or Nautical Mile.
3 Geographical Miles=1 League.
60 Geographic Miles Şof Latitude on a Meridian,
69.16 Statute Miles

=1 Degree of Longitude on the Equator.
1. For the purpose of measuring cloth and other goods sold by the
yard, the yard is divided into halves, fourths, eighths, and sixteenths.

2. The length of a degree of latitude varies. 69.16 is the average length, and is that adopted by the United States Coast Survey.

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1. How many inches are there in 4 feet? 6 feet? 8 feet? 10 feet? 12 feet?

2. How many feet are there in 2 rods? 3 rods? 4 rods?

3. How many inches are there in 2 yards? 4 yards? 5 yards ?

4. How many inches are there in 2 yards and 2 inches ? 3 yards and 4 inches ? 5. How

many

rods are there in 2 miles? 3 miles ? 6. How many feet are there in 1 rod and 2 yards? 2 rods and 3 yards?

7. How many feet are there in 45 inches? In 63 inches?

8. How many yards are in 22 feet? In 47 feet? In 34 feet? 9. How

many

m in 640 rods? In 480 rods? 10. How

many

inches in 10 links? In 100 links? 11. How

many

links in 5 rods? In 3 rods? In 6 rods? 12. The length of a road was 400 links. What was its length in rods?

13. In 160 chains how many miles?

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WRITTEN EXERCISES.

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14. Reduce 5 mi. 18 rd. 4 yd. to yards.
15. Reduce 7 rd. 5 ft. 6 in. to inches.
16. How many inches are there in 7 miles? In 9 miles?

17. A building was 327 ft. long. How many rods was it in length?

18. A man sold a piece of wire 36828 in. long. How many rods was it in length? 19. In 3960 rods how

many

miles 20. Reduce 15 mi. 8 rd. 5 yd. 3 ft. 4 in. to inches. 21. Reduce 8 mi. 14 rd. 5 ft. 4 in. to inches. 22. Reduce 66454 inches to miles, etc. 23. Reduce 158964 inches to miles, etc.

are there?

21. The diameter of the earth is 7912 miles. How many feet is it?

25. How high is a horse that measures 15 hands?

26. My farm is 67 ch. 83 1. long. How many rods long is it?

27. Reduce 59 ch. 75 l. to inches.

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.INGLE

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256. A Square is a figure that has four equal sides, and four equal angles.

A square inch is a square whose side is one inch. A square foot, a square whose side is one foot.

The angles of a square are called right angles.

257. A Rectangle is a figure that has four straight sides and four equal angles.

The angles of a rectangle are all right angles.

258. The Area or extent of any surface is the number of square units it contains.

Thus, if a rectangle is 4 inches long and 3 inches wide the area will be 12 square inches.

For it may be divided into 4 rows, each
containing 3 square inches or units, and the
entire area will be 12 square

inches.
The method of computing the area of fig-
ures that are not rectangular is given in
MENSURATION.

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259. The area of a rectangle is equal to the product of the numbers that express its length and breadth.

The length and breadth must be expressed in units of the same denomination.

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1. How many square inches are there in a rectangle 6 inches long and 5 inches wide? 8 inches long and 3 inches wide? 7 inches long and 5 inches wide?

2. How many square feet are there in a rectangle 4 feet long and 3 feet wide? 7 feet long and 5 feet wide?

3. How many square inches are there in a square whose side is 2 inches? 5 inches ? 8 inches? 12 inches?

4. How many square yards are there in a square whose side is 2 yards? 5 yards? 7 yards? 10 yards ?

5. How many square feet are there in a square whose side is 1 yard long? 3 yards?. 5 yards? 7 yards? 10 yards ?

6. How many square rods are there in a lot 5 rods long and 4 rods broad? In a square whose side is 6 rods?

7. How many square feet in a square whose side is 3 yards? In a rectangle whose length is 4 yards and breadth 3 yards?

8. How many square inches are there in a square foot? Square feet in a square yard? Square yards in a square rod?

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TABLE. 144 Square Inches (sq. in.) = 1 Square Foot 9 Square Feet

= 1 Square Yard 304 Square Yards =1 Square Rod 160 Square Rods

8q. ft sq. yd. sq. rd.

A.

1 Acre 640 Acres

= 1 Square Mile

sq. mi.

sq. mi. A.

1=640=102400 = 3097600

89.701.

sq. yd.

89.ft. sq. in. 27878400 = 4014489600

Scale—144, 9, 301, 160, 610.

1. Plastering, ceiling, etc., are commonly estimated by the square yard; paving, glazing, and stone-cutting, by the square foot.

2. Roofing, flooring and slating are commonly estimated by the square of 100 feet.

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SURVEYORS' SQUARE MEASURE.

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TABLE.
625 Square Links = 1 sq. rd. 10 Square Chains

El acre.
16 Square Rods = 1 sq. chain. 640 Acres

=1 sq. mi. In some parts of the country a Township contains 36 square miles, or is 6 miles square.

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1. How many square feet are there in 4 square yards? 7 square yards? 9 square yards? 2. How many square inches are there in 2 square

feet? 3 square feet? 5

square

feet? 3. How many square yards are there in 27 square feet? 36 square

feet? 81 square feet? 4. How many square yards are there in 10 square rods?

5. How many square chains are there in 48 square rods ? 64 square rods? 96 square rods?

6. How many square rods are there in 3 acres? In 5 acres? 7. How many acres are there in 480

square

rods? 8. How many square feet are there in 288

square

inches? 9. How many. acres are there in 30 square chains? In 50?

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10. Reduce 9 sq. yd. 3 sq. ft. 15 sq. in. to square inches.
11. Reduce 3 sq. mi. 15 sq. rd. to square inches.
12. Reduce 262685 sq. ft. to acres, etc.
13. Reduce 2 A. 37 sq. rd. 5 sq. yd. 7 sq. ft. to sq. in.
14. Reduce 184265 sq. in, to units of higher denominations.

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