784996 978121 17. What is the square root of .093636? 935089* 25. Extract the square root of .9. APPLICATIONS OF SQUARE ROOT. 521. To find the side of a square when its area is given. Since the area of a square is the product of two equal factors which represent its sides, the sides may be found by extracting the square root of the number expressing its area. 1. What is the side of a square whose area is 625 square feet? 2. What is the side of a square whose area is 2025 square rods? 3. A rectangle whose area is 5408 square feet is composed of two equal squares. What is the length of its sides? 4. A man owns 50 acres of land in two square fields, one of which contains 4 times as much area as the other. How many rods of fence will be needed to fence both fields if they are not adjacent? 5. The length of a rectangular field containing 20 acres is twice its width. What is the distance around it? 6. If it cost $572 to inclose with a fence a field that is 72 rods long and 32 rods wide, how much less will be the cost of inclosing a square field containing the same area? 522. To find any side of a right-angled triangle when the other sides are given. Triangle Right angle 523. A Triangle is a figure which has three angles and three sides. Hypotenuse 524. A Right Angle is the angle formed when one line is drawn perpendicular to another. Base 525. A Right-angled Triangle is a triangle which has a right angle. Perpendicular 526. The Hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is the side opposite the right angle. 527. The Base of a triangle is the side on which it is assumed to stand. 528. The Perpendicular is the side which forms a right-angle with the base. 5 4 The relation of the squares described upon the sides of a rightangled triangle is expressed thus: 529. PRINCIPLES.-1. The square described upon the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. 2. The square on either of the other sides of a right-angled triangle is equal to the square on the hypotenuse diminished by the square on the other side. 200 hit rms res de right the 1. The angle 01728% on the When the number of square units in the surface of any square figure is known, its side may be found by extracting the square root of the number according to the preceding case, 530. 1. The base of a right-angled triangle is 8 feet and the perpendicular 6 feet, what is the hypotenuse? ANALYSIS.-Before we can determine the length of the hypotenuse when the sides are given we must find the area of a square described upon it. The square described upon it is equal to the sum of the squares upon the other two sides, or the sum of 82 + 6a, which is 100. Since the area of the square described upon the hypotenuse contains 100 square units, the length of the side is the square root of 100 or 10. PROCESS. 826100. To find the hypotenuse. RULE.-Extract the square root of the sum of the squares of the other two sides. To find the base or perpendicular. RULE.-Extract the square root of the difference of the squares on the hypotenuse and the other side. 2. The base of a right-angled triangle is 15 feet and the perpendicular is 20 feet. What is the hypotenuse? 3. The base of a right-angled triangle is 40 feet and the hypotenuse is 120 feet. What is the perpendicular? 4. The perpendicular of a right-angled triangle is 30 feet and the hypotenuse is 50 feet. What is the base? 5. A tree 150 feet high, standing upon the bank of a stream, was broken off 125 feet from the top, and falling across the stream the top just reached the other shore. What was the width of the stream? 6. Two steamers start from the same point, one going due north at the rate of 15 miles an hour, and the other going due west at the rate of 18 miles an hour. How far apart were they at the end of 6 hours? 7. A rectangular park, whose sides are respectively 45 rods and 60 rods in length has a walk crossing it from corner to corner. How long is the walk? 8. A certain assembly room is 100 feet in length, 60 feet in width, and 26 feet in height. What is the distance from a lower corner to the upper opposite corner? 9. Two buildings standing opposite each other are respectively 60 feet and 80 feet high. A ladder 125 feet long placed at a certain distance from the base of each just reaches the top of each. How far apart are the buildings? 10. The distance from the base of a building to a pole is 145 feet, and a string 225 feet long attached to the top of the pole just reaches the base of the building. What is the height of the pole? 11. A person who wished to ascertain the exact height of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, England, learned by inquiry. that a rope extending from the top of the cross to a point 300 feet from the center of the circular pavement under the dome was 488 feet 10 inches long. If these data were correct, what is the height of St. Paul's? SIMILAR FIGURES. 531. Similar Figures are such as are of the same form, and differ from each other only in size. The truth of the following principles can be shown by geometry: 532. PRINCIPLES.-1. Similar surfaces are to each other as the squares of their corresponding dimensions. Hence, 2. The corresponding dimensions of similar surfaces are to each other as the square roots of their areas. 1. If the area of a triangle whose base is 16 rods, is 128 square rods, how many square rods are there in the area of a similar triangle whose base is 12 rods? ANALYSIS. Since the areas of similar figures are to each other as the squares of their like dimensions, the area of the first triangle (128 sq. rd.) will be to the area of the second triangle (x) as the square of the side of the first triangle (162) is to the square of the side of the second triangle (122). Solving the proportion, the area is 72 sq. rd. PROCESS. 128 x 162: 122 or, X= 72 sq. rd. 2. If the area of a circle, whose diameter is 2 feet, is 6.2832 sq. ft. what will be the area of a circle whose diameter is 4 feet? 3. If the side of a rectangular field containing 25 acres is 40 rods, what is the side of a similar field containing 10 acres? ANALYSIS. Since the corresponding dimensions of similar surfaces are to each other as the square roots of their areas: √25: √10 :: 40: x, or 5: √10 :: 40 : x. Extracting the square root of 10 and solving the proportion, x, or the corresponding side, is 25.296 rd. 4. If the side of a square field containing 40 acres is 80 rods, what will be the side of a similar field whose area is 25 acres? 5. If the area of a circle whose diameter is 20 feet is 314.16 square feet, what is the diameter of a circle whose area is 113.0976 square feet? 6. A farmer has two rectangular fields similar in form: one, whose length is 120 rods and whose breadth is 12 rods, contains 9 acres, the other contains 6 acres. What are its length and breadth? 7. A horse tied to a stake by a rope 7.13 rods long can graze upon just 1 acre of ground. How long must the rope be that he may graze upon 5 acres? |