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The Russian rubles are converted into florins, current money of Amsterdam, and the current into bank money, according to the agio of three or five per cent. and bank money into sterling, according to the course of exchange between England and Amsterdam.

EXAMPLE (23) In 6420 rubles, 42 copecs, exchange 122 copecs per

rix-dollar current, agio 3 per cent, and 34s. 6 d. Flemish, per £. sterling, how much sterling money?

10th. With IRELAND. In Ireland they keep their accounts in o£. s. and d. Irish, divided as in England; but having no coins of their own, they are supplied by the different countries with which they traffic. . The

par of exchange between England and Ireland is 1001. sterling for 108l. 6s. 8d. Irish, or 1s. English = 13d.

The course of exchange is from 5 to 12 per cent, according to the balance of trade.

EXAMPLES. (24) Dublin draws upon London for 7401. 149. 6d. Irish, ex

change at 12 per cent. How much sterling must London

pay Dublin to discharge this bill? (25) London remits to Ireland 651l. 148. 111d. sterling,

How much Irish must London be credited, exchange at 12 per cent. ?

uth. With AMERICA and the WEST INDIES. In exchange with our colonies in America and the West Indies, accounts are kept, and the money divided as in Eng-, land: their money is called currency.

The scarcity of cash obliges them to substitute a papercurrency for carrying on their trade; which, being subject to casualties, suffers a very great discount for sterling, in the purchase of bills of exchange.

EXAMPLES. (26) Philadelphia is indebted to London 14741. 16s. currency.

What sterling may London reckon to be remitted

when the exchange is 64 per cent. ? (27) London receives a bill of exchange from Philadelphia,

for 9431. 178. 54d. sterling. For how much currency was London indebted, exchange being at 64 per

cent. ? (28) London consigns to Jamaica goods, per invoice, amount

ing to 640l. 16s. 9d. which are sold for 9871. 12s. cur. rency. What sterling ought the factor to remit, deducting 5 per cent, for commission and charges, and what does London gain per cent. upon the adventure,

suppose the exchange at 30 per cent.? (29) Jamaica is indebted to London 1470l. 128. 8d. ster

ling. With how much currency will London be credited at Jamaica, when the exchange is 136, per cent. ?

A few EXAMPLES for Exercise.

(30) Amsterdam changes on London at 34s. 4d. per L. ster

ling, and on Lisbon at 52d. Flemish, for 400 rees. How then ought the exchange to go between London

and Lisbon ? (31) A. at Paris draws on B. of London 1200 crowns, at

55d. sterling per crown; for the value whereof, B. draws again on A. 56da sterling per crown, besides commission ţ per cent. Did A. get or lose by this

transaction, and what? (32) V. of Amsterdam draws on X. of Hamburg, at 67d.

Flem. per dollar, of 32 sols Lubeck; and on Y. of Nuremberg, at 70d. Flemish per florin, of 65 cruitzers current. If V. has orders to draw on X. in order to renuit to Y. at the said prices, how would run the exchange between Hamburg and Nuremberg ?

at

(33) M, of Amsterdam orders N. of London to remit 0. of

Paris, at 54d. sterling per crown, and to draw on P. of Antwerp for the value, at 33 {s. Flem. per £. sterling; but as soon as N. received the commission, the exchange was on Paris at 54 d. per crown. At what rate of exchange ought N. to draw on P. to execute his orders,

and be no loser ? (34) London changes with Amsterdam on par at 33s. 4d.

Flem. per Æ. Amsterdam changes on Middleburg, at 2 per cent. How stands the exchange between Lon

don and Middleburg? (35) Q. of Rotterdam remits to R. of Paris 2000 crowns,

91d. Flem. per crown), and double usance, or two months, and pays o per cent. brokerage, with orders to remit him again ihe value at 93d. per crown, allowing at the same time į per cent for provision. What is gained per cent. per annun, by a remittance

thus managed ? (36) A. of Amsterdam owes B. of Paris 2000 florins of

current specie, which he is to remit him by order, the exchange at 90 d. Flemish per crown, of 60 sols Tournois, the agio of the bank being four per cent. better than specie; but when it was to be negotiated, the exchange was down at 89 d. per crown, and the agio raised to five per cent. What did B. get by this turn of affairs ?

XXXI.

COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

IS when the weights or measures of different countries are compared together, and is a rule of great importance to the merchant, and very necessary to be acquainted with.

Case 1. When it is required to find how many of the first sort of weight or measure mentioned in the question, are equal to a given quantity of the last.

RULE.

J. Place the numbers alternately, beginning at the left hand, and let the last number stand on the left hand.

2. Multiply the first rank continually together for a dividend, and the second for a divisor.

G

EXAMPLES. (1) If 100lb. of London be equal to 113 lb. of Marseilles,

and 100 lb. at Marseilles be equal to 81 lb. of Amsterdam; how many pounds at London are equal to 60 lb.

of Amsterdam ? (2) If 104 lb. of English be equal to 84, lb. of Geneva, and

100 lb. of Geneva be equal to 108 lb. at Royen; how

many pounds English are equal to 64 lb. of Rouen? (3) Suppose 100 yards English to be equal to 78 ells French,

and 78 ells French equal to 133į ells at Amster: dam; how many yards English are equal to 100 ells

at Amsterdam ? (4) If 100 canes of Genoa be equal to 191} ells of England,

and 78 eils of England be equal to 1313 of Brussels; how many canes of Genoa are equal to 100 ells of

Brussels ? Case 2. When it is required to find how niany of the last sorts, of weight or measure mentioned, are equal to a given number of the first.

RULE. 1. Place the numbers alternately, beginning at the left hand as before, and set the last number on the right hand.

2. Muitiply the first row for a divisor, and the other for a dividend.

EXAMPLES. (5) Suppose 100 lb. of Portugal be equal to 92 lb. of Ant

werp, and 100 lb. of Antwerp be equal to 110lb. of Lyons; how many pounds at Lyons are equal to 60 lb.

of Portugal ? (6) If 74 yards of English be equal to 100 brasses of Florence,

and 100 brasses of Florence be equal to 30 canes of Marseilles; how many canes of Marseilles are equal to 100 yards English?

XXXII. POSITION,

OR,

THE RULE OF FALSE,

IS so called, because we suppose some uncertain or false numbers; in order that, by reasoning from them, according to the nature thereof, we may, by those false supposed num. bers, find the true number sought. This Rule is divided into two parts, commonly called the

Single Rule and Double Rule.

SINGLE POSITION.

By Single Position are answered all such questions as require only one supposition to discover the true result.

RULE. Make choice of your position : work with that supposition, according to the nature of the question, as if it were the true number; and if you find, after ordering your position, the result either too much or too little, you may then find the true answer, by this proportion, viz.

As the result of your position : is to the position :: so is the given number : to the number sought.

PROOF. Add the several parts of the sum together, and if the sum agree with the given number, it is right.

EXAMPLES (1) Three persons, A. B. and C. conversing respecting their

ages; B. said to A. I am as old and half again as old as you : then said C. to B. I am twice as old as you :. now said A. to them both, I am sure, if our ages be added together, the sum will be 132. I demand each

man's age.

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